Virginia Glossary

Pursuant to § 24.2-629(B)(11), voting is conducted in absolute secrecy so there are no records of the total count of ballots cast by voters protected from public disclosure.

§ 24.2-101. As used in this title, unless the context requires a different meaning:

"Ballot scanner machine" means the electronic counting machine in which a voter inserts a marked ballot to be scanned and the results tabulated.

"Candidate" means a person who seeks or campaigns for an office of the Commonwealth or one of its governmental units in a general, primary, or special election and who is qualified to have his name placed on the ballot for the office. "Candidate" shall include a person who seeks the nomination of a political party or who, by reason of receiving the nomination of a political party for election to an office, is referred to as its nominee. For the purposes of Chapters 8 (§ 24.2-800 et seq.), 9.3 (§ 24.2-945 et seq.), and 9.5 (§ 24.2-955 et seq.), "candidate" shall include any write-in candidate. However, no write-in candidate who has received less than 15 percent of the votes cast for the office shall be eligible to initiate an election contest pursuant to Article 2 (§ 24.2-803 et seq.) of Chapter 8. For the purposes of Chapters 9.3 (§ 24.2-945 et seq.) and 9.5 (§ 24.2-955 et seq.), "candidate" shall include any person who raises or spends funds in order to seek or campaign for an office of the Commonwealth, excluding federal offices, or one of its governmental units in a party nomination process or general, primary, or special election; and such person shall be considered a candidate until a final report is filed pursuant to Article 3 (§ 24.2-947 et seq.) of Chapter 9.3.

"Central absentee voter precinct" means a precinct established pursuant to § 24.2-712 for the processing of absentee ballots for the county or city or any combination of precincts within the county or city.

"Constitutional office" or "constitutional officer" means a county or city office or officer referred to in Article VII, Section 4 of the Constitution of Virginia: clerk of the circuit court, attorney for the Commonwealth, sheriff, commissioner of the revenue, and treasurer.

"Department of Elections" or "Department" means the state agency headed by the Commissioner of Elections.

"Direct recording electronic machine" or "DRE" means the electronic voting machine on which a voter touches areas of a computer screen, or uses other control features, to mark a ballot and his vote is recorded electronically.

"Election" means a general, primary, or special election.

"Election district" means the territory designated by proper authority or by law which is represented by an official elected by the people, including the Commonwealth, a congressional district, a General Assembly district, or a district for the election of an official of a county, city, town, or other governmental unit.

"Electoral board" or "local electoral board" means a board appointed pursuant to § 24.2-106 to administer elections for a county or city. The electoral board of the county in which a town or the greater part of a town is located shall administer the town's elections.

"Entrance of polling place" or "entrance to polling place" means an opening in the wall used for ingress to a structure.

"General election" means an election held in the Commonwealth on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November or on the first Tuesday in May for the purpose of filling offices regularly scheduled by law to be filled at those times.

"General registrar" means the person appointed by the electoral board of a county or city pursuant to § 24.2-110 to be responsible for all aspects of voter registration, in addition to other duties prescribed by this title. When performing duties related to the administration of elections, the general registrar is acting in his capacity as the director of elections for the locality in which he serves.

"Machine-readable ballot" means a tangible ballot that is marked by a voter or by a system or device operated by a voter, is available for verification by the voter at the time the ballot is cast, and is then fed into and scanned by a separate counting machine capable of reading ballots and tabulating results.

"Officer of election" means a person appointed by an electoral board pursuant to § 24.2-115 to serve at a polling place for any election.

"Paper ballot" means a tangible ballot that is marked by a voter and then manually counted.

"Party" or "political party" means an organization of citizens of the Commonwealth which, at either of the two preceding statewide general elections, received at least 10 percent of the total vote cast for any statewide office filled in that election. The organization shall have a state central committee and an office of elected state chairman which have been continually in existence for the six months preceding the filing of a nominee for any office.

"Person with a disability" means a person with a disability as defined by the Virginians with Disabilities Act (§ 51.5-1 et seq.).

"Polling place" means the structure that contains the one place provided for each precinct at which the qualified voters who are residents of the precinct may vote.

"Precinct" means the territory designated by the governing body of a county, city, or town to be served by one polling place.

"Primary" or "primary election" means an election held for the purpose of selecting a candidate to be the nominee of a political party for election to office.

"Printed ballot" means a tangible ballot that is printed on paper and includes both machine-readable ballots and paper ballots.

"Qualified voter" means a person who is entitled to vote pursuant to the Constitution of Virginia and who is (i) 18 years of age on or before the day of the election or qualified pursuant to § 24.2-403 or subsection D of § 24.2-544, (ii) a resident of the Commonwealth and of the precinct in which he offers to vote, and (iii) a registered voter. No person who has been convicted of a felony shall be a qualified voter unless his civil rights have been restored by the Governor or other appropriate authority. No person adjudicated incapacitated shall be a qualified voter unless his capacity has been reestablished as provided by law. Whether a signature should be counted towards satisfying the signature requirement of any petition shall be determined based on the signer of the petition's qualification to vote. For purposes of determining if a signature on a petition shall be included in the count toward meeting the signature requirements of any petition, "qualified voter" shall include only persons maintained on the Virginia voter registration system (a) with active status and (b) with inactive status who are qualified to vote for the office for which the petition was circulated.

"Qualified voter in a town" means a person who is a resident within the corporate boundaries of the town in which he offers to vote, duly registered in the county of his residence, and otherwise a qualified voter.

"Referendum" means any election held pursuant to law to submit a question to the voters for approval or rejection.

"Registered voter" means any person who is maintained on the Virginia voter registration system. All registered voters shall be maintained on the Virginia voter registration system with active status unless assigned to inactive status by a general registrar in accordance with Chapter 4 (§ 24.2-400 et seq.). For purposes of applying the precinct size requirements of § 24.2-307, calculating election machine requirements pursuant to Article 3 (§ 24.2-625 et seq.) of Chapter 6, mailing notices of local election district, precinct or polling place changes as required by subdivision 13 of § 24.2-114 and § 24.2-306, and determining the number of signatures required for candidate and voter petitions, "registered voter" shall include only persons maintained on the Virginia voter registration system with active status. For purposes of determining if a signature on a petition shall be included in the count toward meeting the signature requirements of any petition, "registered voter" shall include only persons maintained on the Virginia voter registration system (i) with active status and (ii) on inactive status who are qualified to vote for the office for which the petition was circulated.

"Registration records" means all official records concerning the registration of qualified voters and shall include all records, lists, applications, and files, whether maintained in books, on cards, on automated data bases, or by any other legally permitted record-keeping method.

"Residence" or "resident," for all purposes of qualification to register and vote, means and requires both domicile and a place of abode. To establish domicile, a person must live in a particular locality with the intention to remain. A place of abode is the physical place where a person dwells.

"Special election" means any election that is held pursuant to law to fill a vacancy in office or to hold a referendum.

"State Board" or "Board" means the State Board of Elections.

"Virginia voter registration system" or "voter registration system" means the automated central record-keeping system for all voters registered within the Commonwealth that is maintained as provided in Article 2 (§ 24.2-404 et seq.) of Chapter 4.

"Voting system" means the electronic voting and counting machines used at elections. This term includes direct recording electronic machines (DRE) and ballot scanner machines.

Code 1950, §§ 24-17, 24-18, 24-18.2, 24-22, 24-23, 24-44, 24-136, 24-137, 24-172, 24-346; 1956, c. 378; 1963, Ex. Sess., c. 2; 1964, c. 592; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-1, 24.1-41, 24.1-42, 24.1-93; 1971, Ex. Sess., cc. 119, 205, 265; 1972, c. 620; 1973, c. 30; 1974, c. 428; 1975, c. 515; 1977, cc. 30, 490; 1978, c. 778; 1982, c. 650; 1983, c. 461; 1989, c. 322; 1991, 1st Sp. Sess., c. 12; 1993, c. 641; 1996, cc. 72, 73; 1997, c. 801; 1998, c. 866; 2001, c. 719; 2002, c. 487; 2003, c. 1015; 2005, c. 384; 2006, cc. 205, 787, 892; 2007, c. 311; 2008, c. 880; 2009, cc. 865, 870, 874; 2010, c. 707; 2013, cc. 542, 684; 2014, cc. 540, 576; 2015, c. 740; 2016, cc. 18, 492; 2020, c. 294; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 471.

§ 24.2-101.01. Certified mail; subsequent mail or notices may be sent by regular mail.

Whenever in this title the State Board is required to send any mail or notice by certified mail and such mail or notice is sent certified mail, return receipt requested, then any subsequent, identical mail or notice that is sent by the State Board may be sent by regular mail.

2011, c. 566.

§ 24.2-101.1. Implementation of certain laws; special elections.

All laws enacted at a regular session of the General Assembly shall take effect as provided in § 1-214 except that the implementation of any change to this title shall not become effective for a special election held at a time other than a general election if the writ for the special election was issued prior to the effective date of the law.

2008, c. 366.

§ 24.2-123. Requirements for registration and voting; prohibition on use of power of attorney.

No action undertaken to fulfill any requirement of this title to register or vote shall be valid or complete when the action is based on the exercise of a power of attorney, or other writing, in which any principal shall have vested any power or authority in an attorney-in-fact or other agent.

1995, cc. 192, 234.

§ 24.2-416.7. Application for voter registration by electronic means.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a person who is qualified to register to vote may apply to register to vote by electronic means as authorized by the State Board by completing an electronic registration application.

B. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a registered voter may satisfy the requirements of §§ 24.2-423 and 24.2-424 to notify the general registrar of a change of legal name or place of residence within the Commonwealth by electronic means as authorized by the State Board by completing an electronic registration application.

C. An electronic registration application completed pursuant to this article shall require that an applicant:

1. Provide the information as required under § 24.2-418;

2. Have a Virginia driver's license or other document issued by the Department of Motor Vehicles under Chapter 3 (§ 46.2-300 et seq.) of Title 46.2;

3. Provide a social security number and Department of Motor Vehicles customer identifier number that matches the applicant's record in the Department of Motor Vehicles records;

4. Attest to the truth of the information provided;

5. Sign the application in a manner consistent with the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (§ 59.1-479 et seq.); and

6. Affirmatively authorize the Department of Elections and general registrar to use the applicant's signature obtained by the Department of Motor Vehicles for voter registration purposes.

D. In order for an individual to complete a transaction under this article, the general registrar shall verify that the Department of Motor Vehicles customer identifier number, date of birth, and social security number provided by the applicant match the information contained in the Department of Motor Vehicles records.

E. The Department of Motor Vehicles shall provide to the Department of Elections a digital copy of the applicant's signature on record with the Department of Motor Vehicles.

F. The Department of Elections shall transmit to the general registrar an applicant's completed voter registration application and digital signature not later than five business days after the date of receipt.

G. Each transaction taking place under this section shall be accompanied by the following statement featured prominently in boldface capital letters: "WARNING: INTENTIONALLY MAKING A MATERIALLY FALSE STATEMENT DURING THIS TRANSACTION CONSTITUTES THE CRIME OF ELECTION FRAUD, WHICH IS PUNISHABLE UNDER VIRGINIA LAW AS A FELONY. VIOLATORS MAY BE SENTENCED TO UP TO 10 YEARS IN PRISON, OR UP TO 12 MONTHS IN JAIL AND/OR FINED UP TO $2,500."

H. The Department of Elections may use additional security measures approved by the State Board to ensure the accuracy and integrity of registration transactions performed under this article.

2013, c. 520; 2015, c. 740; 2020, cc. 1227, 1246.

§ 24.2-125. Definitions.

For purposes of this chapter, "protected class" means a group of citizens protected from discrimination based on race or color or membership in a language minority group.

2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 528, 533.

§ 24.2-126. Vote denial or dilution.

A. No voting qualification or prerequisite to voting or standard, practice, or procedure shall be imposed or applied by the state or any locality in a manner that results in a denial or abridgement of the right of any citizen of the United States to vote based on race or color or membership in a language minority group.

B. A violation of subsection A is established if, on the basis of the totality of circumstances, it is shown that the political processes leading to nomination or election in the state or a locality are not equally open to participation by members of a protected class in that its members have less opportunity than other members of the electorate to participate in the political processes or to elect representatives of their choice. The extent to which members of a protected class have been elected to office in the state or locality is one circumstance that may be considered.

C. Nothing in this section shall be construed to establish a right to have members of a protected class elected in numbers equal to their proportion in the population.

2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 528, 533.

§ 24.2-127. Impairment of voting rights of registered voters.

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to deny, impair, or otherwise adversely affect the right to vote of any registered voter.

2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 528, 533.

§ 24.2-128. (Effective September 1, 2021) Minority language accessibility.

A. The State Board shall designate a county, city, or town as a covered locality if it determines, in consultation with the Director of the Census, on the basis of the 2010 American Community Survey census data and subsequent American Community Survey data in five-year increments, or comparable census data, that (i) more than five percent of the citizens of voting age of such county, city, or town are members of a single language minority and are unable to speak or understand English adequately enough to participate in the electoral process; (ii) more than 10,000 of the citizens of voting age of such county, city, or town are members of a single language minority and are unable to speak or understand English adequately enough to participate in the electoral process; or (iii) in the case of a county, city, or town containing all or any part of an Indian reservation, more than five percent of the American Indian citizens of voting age within the Indian reservation are members of a single language minority and are unable to speak or understand English adequately enough to participate in the electoral process.

B. Whenever a covered locality provides any voting or election materials, it shall provide such materials in the language of the applicable minority group as well as in the English language. For purposes of this requirement, "voting or election materials" means registration or voting notices, forms, instructions, assistance, voter information pamphlets, ballots, sample ballots, candidate qualification information, and notices regarding changes to local election districts, precincts, or polling places. For purposes of this requirement, "registration notices" means any notice of voter registration approval, denial, or cancellation required by the provisions of Chapter 4 (§ 24.2-400 et seq.). A covered locality may distribute such materials in the preferred language identified by the voter.

C. The Attorney General, or any qualified voter who is a member of a language minority group for whom a covered locality is required to provide voting or election materials in such language, may institute a cause of action in the circuit court of the covered locality to compel the provision of the voting or election materials in the language of the applicable minority group. In such action, the court may, in its discretion, allow a private plaintiff a reasonable attorney fee as part of the costs, if such plaintiff is the prevailing party.

2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 528, 533.

§ 24.2-129. Covered practices; actions required prior to enactment or administration.

A. For the purposes of this section:

"Certification of no objection" means a certification issued by the Attorney General that there is no objection to the enactment or administration of a covered practice by a locality because the covered practice neither has the purpose or effect of denying or abridging the right to vote based on race or color or membership in a language minority group nor will result in the retrogression in the position of members of a racial or ethnic group with respect to their effective exercise of the electoral franchise.

"Covered practice" means:

1. Any change to the method of election of members of a governing body or an elected school board by adding seats elected at large or by converting one or more seats elected from a single-member district to one or more at-large seats or seats from a multi-member district;

2. Any change, or series of changes within a 12-month period, to the boundaries of the locality that reduces by more than five percentage points the proportion of the locality's voting age population that is composed of members of a single racial or language minority group, as determined by the most recent American Community Survey data;

3. Any change to the boundaries of election districts or wards in the locality, including changes made pursuant to a decennial redistricting measure;

4. Any change that restricts the ability of any person to provide interpreter services to voters in any language other than English or that limits or impairs the creation or distribution of voting or election materials in any language other than English; or

5. Any change that reduces the number of or consolidates or relocates polling places in the locality, except where permitted by law in the event of an emergency.

"Voting age population" means the resident population of persons who are 18 years of age or older, as determined by the most recent American Community Survey data available at the time any change to a covered practice is published pursuant to subsection B.

B. Prior to enacting or seeking to administer any voting qualification or prerequisite to voting, or any standard, practice, or procedure with respect to voting, that is a covered practice, the governing body shall cause to be published on the official website for the locality the proposed covered practice and general notice of opportunity for public comment on the proposed covered practice. The governing body shall also publicize the notice through press releases and such other media as will best serve the purpose and subject involved. Such notice shall be made at least 45 days in advance of the last date prescribed in the notice for public comment.

Public comment shall be accepted for a period of no fewer than 30 days. During this period, the governing body shall afford interested persons an opportunity to submit data, views, and arguments in writing by mail, fax, or email, or through an online public comment forum on the official website for the locality if one has been established. The governing body shall conduct at least one public hearing during this period to receive public comment on the proposed covered practice.

The governing body may make changes to the proposed covered practice in response to public comment received. If doing so, the revised covered practice shall be published and public comment shall be accepted in accordance with this subsection, except the public comment period shall be no fewer than 15 days.

C. Following the public comment period or periods prescribed in subsection B, the governing body shall publish the final covered practice, which shall include a plain English description of the practice and the text of an ordinance giving effect to the practice, maps of proposed boundary changes, or other relevant materials, and notice that the covered practice will take effect in 30 days. During this 30-day waiting period, any person who will be subject to or affected by the covered practice may challenge in the circuit court of the locality where the covered practice is to be implemented the covered practice as (i) having the purpose or effect of denying or abridging the right to vote on the basis of race or color or membership in a language minority group or (ii) resulting in the retrogression in the position of members of a racial or ethnic group with respect to their effective exercise of the electoral franchise. In such action, the court may, in its discretion, allow a private plaintiff a reasonable attorney fee as part of the costs, if such plaintiff is the prevailing party.

D. The governing body of a locality seeking to administer or implement a covered practice, in lieu of following the provisions of subsections B and C, may submit the proposed covered practice to the Office of the Attorney General for issuance of a certification of no objection. Such practice shall not be given effect until the Attorney General has issued such certification. A certification of no objection shall be deemed to have been issued if the Attorney General does not interpose an objection within 60 days of the governing body's submission or if, upon good cause shown and to facilitate an expedited approval within 60 days of the governing body's submission, the Attorney General has affirmatively indicated that no such objection will be made. An affirmative indication by the Attorney General that no objection will be made or the absence of an objection to the covered practice by the Attorney General shall not bar a subsequent action to enjoin enforcement of such qualification, prerequisite, standard, practice, or procedure.

2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 528, 533.

§ 24.2-130. At-large method of election; limitations; violations; remedies.

A. An at-large method of election, including one that combines at-large elections with district- or ward-based elections, shall not be imposed or applied by the governing body of any locality in a manner that impairs the ability of members of a protected class, as defined in § 24.2-125, to elect candidates of its choice or its ability to influence the outcome of an election, as a result of the dilution or the abridgement of the rights of voters who are members of a protected class.

B. A violation of subsection A is established if it is shown that racially polarized voting occurs in local elections and that this, in combination with the method of election, dilutes the voting strength of members of a protected class. For purposes of this subsection, "racially polarized voting" refers to the extent to which the candidate preferences of members of the protected class and other voters in the jurisdiction have differed in recent elections for the office at issue and other offices in which the voters have been presented with a choice between candidates who are members of the protected class and candidates who are not members of the protected class. A finding of racially polarized voting or a violation of subsection A shall not be precluded by the fact that members of a protected class are not geographically compact or concentrated in a locality. Proof of an intent on the part of voters or elected officials to discriminate against members of a protected class shall not be required to prove a violation of subsection A.

C. Any voter who is a member of a protected class, as defined in § 24.2-125, and who resides in a locality where a violation of this section is alleged shall be entitled to initiate a cause of action in the circuit court of the county or city in which the locality is located. In such action, the court may, in its discretion, allow a private plaintiff a reasonable attorney fee as part of the costs, if such plaintiff is the prevailing party.

D. Upon a finding of a violation of this section, the court shall implement appropriate remedies that are tailored to remedy the violation.

2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 528, 533.

§ 24.2-131. Voter Education and Outreach Fund.

There is hereby created in the state treasury a special nonreverting fund to be known as the Voter Outreach and Education Fund, referred to in this section as "the Fund." The Fund shall be established on the books of the Comptroller. All penalties and charges directed to this fund by § 24.2-104.1 and all other funds from any public or private source directed to the Fund shall be paid into the state treasury and credited to the Fund. Interest earned on moneys in the Fund shall remain in the Fund and be credited to it. Any moneys remaining in the Fund, including interest thereon, at the end of each fiscal year shall not revert to the general fund but shall remain in the Fund. Moneys in the Fund shall be used solely for the purposes of educating voters and persons qualified to be voters on the rights ensured to them pursuant to federal and state constitutional and statutory law and remedies. Expenditures and disbursements from the Fund shall be made by the State Treasurer on warrants issued by the Comptroller upon written request signed by the Secretary of Administration or his designee.

2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 528, 533.

§ 24.2-700. Persons entitled to vote by absentee ballot.

Any registered voter may vote by absentee ballot in accordance with the provisions of this chapter in any election in which he is qualified to vote.

Code 1950, § 24-319; 1952, c. 488; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-227; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 119; 1972, c. 620; 1974, c. 428; 1975, c. 515; 1976, c. 616; 1981, c. 425; 1983, c. 461; 1988, c. 6; 1989, c. 320; 1993, cc. 414, 641; 1995, c. 157; 1998, c. 254; 2000, c. 378; 2001, c. 631; 2002, cc. 785, 819; 2008, cc. 425, 880; 2009, cc. 405, 873; 2010, c. 244; 2012, c. 353; 2017, c. 631; 2019, cc. 668, 669; 2020, cc. 561, 1149, 1151, 1201.

§ 24.2-701. Application for absentee ballot.

A. The Department shall furnish each general registrar with a sufficient number of applications for official absentee ballots. The registrars shall furnish applications to persons requesting them.

The Department shall implement a system that enables eligible persons to request and receive an absentee ballot application electronically through the Internet. Electronic absentee ballot applications shall be in a form approved by the State Board.

Except as provided in § 24.2-703 or 24.2-703.1, a separate application shall be completed for each election in which the applicant offers to vote. An application for an absentee ballot may be accepted the later of (i) 12 months before an election or (ii) the day following any election held in the twelfth month prior to the election in which the applicant is applying to vote.

An application that is completed in person at the same time that the applicant registers to vote shall be held and processed no sooner than the fifth day after the date that the applicant registered to vote; however, this requirement shall not be applicable to any covered voter, as defined in § 24.2-452.

Any application received before the ballots are printed shall be held and processed as soon as the printed ballots for the election are available.

For the purposes of this chapter, the general registrar's office shall be open a minimum of eight hours between the hours of 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. on the first and second Saturday immediately preceding all elections.

Unless the applicant is disabled, all applications for absentee ballots shall be signed by the applicant who shall state, subject to felony penalties for making false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016, that to the best of his knowledge and belief the facts contained in the application are true and correct and that he has not and will not vote in the election at any other place in Virginia or in any other state. If the applicant is unable to sign the application, a person assisting the applicant will note this fact on the applicant signature line and provide his signature, name, and address.

B. Applications for absentee ballots shall be completed in the following manner:

1. An application completed in person shall be completed only in the office of the general registrar and signed by the applicant in the presence of a registrar. The applicant shall provide one of the forms of identification specified in subsection B of § 24.2-643, or if he is unable to present one of the specified forms of identification listed in that subsection, he shall sign a statement, subject to felony penalties for making false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016, that he is the named registered voter he claims to be. An applicant who requires assistance in voting by reason of a physical disability or an inability to read or write, and who requests assistance pursuant to § 24.2-649, may be assisted in preparation of this statement in accordance with that section. The provisions of § 24.2-649 regarding voters who are unable to sign shall be followed when assisting a voter in completing this statement. Any applicant who does not show one of the forms of identification specified in subsection B of § 24.2-643 or does not sign this statement shall be offered a provisional ballot under the provisions of § 24.2-653. The State Board of Elections shall provide instructions to the general registrar for the handling and counting of such provisional ballots pursuant to § 24.2-653.01 and this section.

This paragraph shall apply in the case of any individual who is required by subparagraph (b) of 52 U.S.C. § 21083 of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 to show identification the first time he votes in a federal election in the state. At such election, such individual shall present (i) a current and valid photo identification or (ii) a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck, or other government document that shows the name and address of the voter. Such individual who desires to vote in person but does not show one of the forms of identification specified in this paragraph shall be offered a provisional ballot under the provisions of § 24.2-653. The identification requirements of subsection B of § 24.2-643 and subsection A of § 24.2-653 shall not apply to such voter at such election. The Department of Elections shall provide instructions to the electoral boards for the handling and counting of such provisional ballots pursuant to § 24.2-653.01 and this section.

2. Any other application may be made by mail, by electronic or telephonic transmission to a facsimile device if one is available to the office of the general registrar or to the office of the Department if a device is not available locally, or by other means. The application shall be on a form furnished by the registrar or as specified in subdivision 3. The application shall be made to the appropriate registrar no later than 5:00 p.m. on the eleventh day prior to the election in which the applicant offers to vote.

3. The application of any covered voter, as defined in § 24.2-452, may be on a federal postcard application, as defined in § 24.2-452. The federal postcard application may be accepted the later of (i) 12 months before an election or (ii) the day following any election held in the twelfth month prior to the election in which the applicant is applying to vote.

C. Applications for absentee ballots shall contain the following information:

1. The applicant's printed name and the last four digits of the applicant's social security number. However, an applicant completing the application in person shall not be required to provide the last four digits of his social security number;

2. A statement that he is registered in the county or city in which he offers to vote and his residence address in such county or city. Any person temporarily residing outside the United States shall provide the last date of residency at his Virginia residence address, if that residence is no longer available to him. Any covered voter, as defined in § 24.2-452, who is not a registered voter may file the applications to register and for a ballot simultaneously; and

3. The complete address to which the ballot is to be sent directly to the applicant, unless the application is made in person at a time when the printed ballots for the election are available and the applicant chooses to vote in person at the time of completing his application. The address given shall be (i) the address of the applicant on file in the registration records; (ii) the address at which he will be located while absent from his county or city; or (iii) the address at which he will be located while temporarily confined due to a disability or illness. No ballot shall be sent to, or in care of, any other person.

D. An application shall not be required for any registered voter appearing in person to cast an absentee ballot pursuant to § 24.2-701.1.

Code 1950, § 24.1-228; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-228.1; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 119; 1972, cc. 620, 621; 1973, c. 30; 1974, c. 428; 1975, c. 515; 1977, c. 490; 1978, c. 778; 1980, c. 639; 1981, c. 425; 1982, c. 650; 1983, c. 461; 1988, c. 8; 1989, c. 320; 1992, c. 288; 1993, cc. 414, 641; 1996, c. 295; 1998, c. 254; 2000, cc. 378, 863; 2001, cc. 621, 631, 793; 2002, cc. 785, 819; 2003, c. 478; 2004, c. 410; 2006, c. 438; 2007, c. 315; 2008, cc. 386, 425, 880; 2009, cc. 405, 873; 2010, c. 244; 2011, cc. 427, 458; 2012, cc. 353, 612, 838, 839; 2013, cc. 535, 620, 725; 2015, cc. 314, 644, 645; 2017, c. 631; 2018, c. 595; 2019, cc. 668, 669; 2020, cc. 289, 561, 735, 1064, 1065, 1149, 1151, 1201.

§ 24.2-701.1. Absentee voting in person.

A. Absentee voting in person shall be available on the forty-fifth day prior to any election and shall continue until 5:00 p.m. on the Saturday immediately preceding the election. In the case of a special election, excluding for federal offices, if time is insufficient between the issuance of the writ calling for the special election and the date of the special election, absentee voting in person shall be available as soon as possible after the issuance of the writ.

Any registered voter offering to vote absentee in person shall provide his name and his residence address in the county or city in which he is offering to vote. After verifying that the voter is a registered voter of that county or city, the general registrar shall enroll the voter's name and address on the absentee voter applicant list maintained pursuant to § 24.2-706.

Except as provided in subsection F, a registered voter voting by absentee ballot in person shall provide one of the forms of identification specified in subsection B of § 24.2-643. If he does not show one of the forms of identification specified in subsection B of § 24.2-643, he shall be allowed to vote after signing a statement, subject to felony penalties for false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016, that he is the named registered voter he claims to be. A voter who requires assistance in voting by reason of a physical disability or an inability to read or write, and who requests assistance pursuant to § 24.2-649, may be assisted in preparation of this statement in accordance with that section. The provisions of § 24.2-649 regarding voters who are unable to sign shall be followed when assisting a voter in completing this statement. A voter who does not show one of the forms of identification specified in this subsection or does not sign this statement shall be offered a provisional ballot under the provisions of § 24.2-653. The State Board shall provide instructions to the general registrar for the handling and counting of such provisional ballots pursuant to § 24.2-653.01 and this section.

B. Absentee voting in person shall be available during regular business hours. The electoral board of each county and city shall provide for absentee voting in person in the office of the general registrar or a voter satellite office established pursuant to § 24.2-701.2. For purposes of this chapter, such offices shall be open to the public a minimum of eight hours between the hours of 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. on the first and second Saturday immediately preceding all elections. The electoral board or general registrar may provide for absentee voting in person in such offices on Sundays. Any applicant who is in line to cast his ballot when the office of the general registrar or voter satellite office closes shall be permitted to cast his absentee ballot that day.

C. The general registrar may provide for the casting of absentee ballots in person pursuant to this section on voting systems. The Department shall prescribe the procedures for use of voting systems. The procedures shall provide for absentee voting in person on voting systems that have been certified and are currently approved by the State Board. The procedures shall be applicable and uniformly applied by the Department to all localities using comparable voting systems.

D. At least two officers of election shall be present during all hours that absentee voting in person is available and shall represent the two major political parties, except in the case of a party primary, when they may represent the party conducting the primary. However, such requirement shall not apply when (i) voting systems that are being used pursuant to subsection C are located in the office of the general registrar or voter satellite office and (ii) the general registrar or an assistant registrar is present.

E. The Department shall include absentee ballots voted in person in its instructions for the preparation, maintenance, and reporting of ballots, pollbooks, records, and returns.

F. This subsection shall apply in the case of any individual who is required by subparagraph (b) of 52 U.S.C. § 21083 of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 to show identification the first time he votes in a federal election in the state. At such election, such individual shall present (i) a current and valid photo identification or (ii) a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck, or other government document that shows the name and address of the voter. Such individual who desires to vote in person but who does not show one of the forms of identification specified in this subsection shall be offered a provisional ballot under the provisions of § 24.2-653. The identification requirements of subsection B of § 24.2-643 and subsection A of § 24.2-653 shall not apply to such voter at such election. The Department of Elections shall provide instructions to the electoral boards for the handling and counting of such provisional ballots pursuant to § 24.2-653.01 and this section.

2019, cc. 278, 668, 669; 2020, cc. 735, 856, 1064, 1065, 1149, 1151, 1201; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 204.

§ 24.2-701.2. Absentee voting in person; voter satellite offices.

A. The governing body of any county or city may establish, by ordinance, voter satellite offices to be used in the locality for absentee voting in person. The governing body may establish as many offices as it deems necessary. No change in, including the creation or abolishment of, any voter satellite office shall be enacted within 60 days next preceding any general election. Notice shall be published prior to enactment in a newspaper having general circulation in the locality once a week for two successive weeks.

B. Any voter satellite office shall be in a public building owned or leased by the county, city, or town within the county and may be in a facility that is owned or leased by the Commonwealth and used as a location for Department of Motor Vehicles facilities or as an office of the general registrar. Such location shall be deemed the equivalent of the office of the general registrar for the purposes of completing the application for an absentee ballot in person pursuant to §§ 24.2-701 and 24.2-706. Any such location shall have adequate facilities for the protection of all elections materials produced in the process of absentee voting in person, the voted and unvoted absentee ballots, and any voting systems in use at the location.

C. Voter satellite offices shall be accessible to qualified voters as required by the provisions of the Virginians with Disabilities Act (§ 51.5-1 et seq.), the Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act (52 U.S.C. § 20101 et seq.), and the Americans with Disabilities Act relating to public services (42 U.S.C. § 12131 et seq.). The State Board shall provide instructions to the local electoral boards and general registrars to assist the localities in complying with the requirements of the acts.

D. The governing body of each county, city, and town shall provide funds to enable the general registrar to provide adequate facilities at each voter satellite office for the conduct of elections.

E. Not later than 55 days prior to any election, the general registrar shall post notice of all voter satellite office locations in the locality and the dates and hours of operation of each location in the office of the general registrar and on the official website for the county or city. Such notice shall remain in the office of the general registrar and on the official website for the county or city for the duration of the period during which absentee voting in person is available. If the county or city does not have an official website, such notice shall be published in a newspaper of general circulation in the county or city at least once prior to the election but not later than 55 days prior to such election.

F. If an emergency makes a voter satellite office unusable or inaccessible, the electoral board or the general registrar shall provide an alternative voter satellite office, subject to the approval of the State Board, and shall give notice of the change in the location of the voter satellite office. The general registrar shall provide notice to the voters appropriate to the circumstances of the emergency. For the purposes of this subsection, "emergency" means a rare and unforeseen combination of circumstances, or the resulting state, that calls for immediate action.

G. The provisions of subsection E of § 24.2-310 providing certain limited circumstances in which a local electoral board may approve an exception to the prohibition on the distribution of campaign materials inside the prohibited area outside of a polling place shall apply to voter satellite offices and the building in which such offices may be located.

H. A voter satellite office established pursuant to this section shall be deemed to be the equivalent of an office of the general registrar for purposes of completing an application for an absentee ballot in person pursuant to §§ 24.2-701, 24.2-701.1, and 24.2-706.

§ 24.2-702.1. Federal write-in absentee ballots.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, a covered voter, as defined in § 24.2-452, may use a federal write-in absentee ballot in any election. Such ballot shall be submitted and processed in the manner provided by the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (52 U.S.C. § 20301 et seq.) and this article.

B. Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, a federal write-in absentee ballot submitted pursuant to subsection A shall be considered valid for purposes of simultaneously satisfying both an absentee ballot application and a completed absentee ballot, provided that the ballot is received no later than the deadline for the return of absentee ballots as provided in § 24.2-709 for the election in which the voter offers to vote, and the application contains the following information: (i) the voter's signature; however, if the voter is unable to sign, the person assisting the voter will note this fact in the voter signature box; (ii) the voter's printed name; (iii) the county or city in which he is registered and offers to vote; (iv) the residence address at which he is registered to vote; (v) his current military or overseas address; and (vi) the signature of a witness who shall sign the same application.

C. This section shall not be construed to require that an absentee ballot be sent to the absentee voter on receipt of a federal write-in absentee ballot unless the voter has also submitted an absentee ballot application pursuant to § 24.2-701.

1993, c. 813, § 24.1-228.2:1; 1993, c. 641; 2002, cc. 785, 819; 2009, cc. 230, 310; 2010, cc. 449, 645; 2011, cc. 427, 458; 2012, c. 353; 2015, c. 313; 2019, cc. 668, 669; 2020, cc. 1149, 1151, 1201.

§ 24.2-703. Application for absentee ballots for multiple elections for uniformed and overseas voters.

Any person who is eligible for a military-overseas ballot as defined in § 24.2-452 may file a single application to receive ballots for all elections in which he is eligible to vote absentee. The application shall be on a federal postcard application. An application from any person who is already registered or who is eligible for late registration under § 24.2-419 that is received by the general registrar no later than 5:00 p.m. on the eleventh day prior to the election shall be considered a standing request for absentee ballots through December 31 of the year following the calendar year of the date of the application or another shorter period the voter specifies. In the event that a second or subsequent federal postcard application is received from a voter, any previous applications shall be superseded and the duration of the most recently received application shall apply.

The general registrar shall retain the application and process the applicant's request for an absentee ballot for each election in accordance with procedures established by the State Board. The applicant shall specify by party designation the primary ballots he is requesting.

If an official reply to the application or an absentee ballot sent to the applicant is returned as undeliverable, no other ballots shall be sent. No ballot shall be sent to the applicant, and no voted ballot received from the applicant shall be valid, (i) for any election held after the voter has notified the registrar that the voter no longer wishes to be registered or (ii) after the registrar has received notification that the voter has registered to vote in another state.

1991, c. 603, § 24.1-228.1:1; 1993, c. 641; 2001, c. 793; 2004, c. 410; 2006, c. 438; 2010, cc. 449, 645; 2011, cc. 427, 458; 2012, c. 353; 2020, c. 289.

§ 24.2-703.1. Permanent absentee voter list.

A. Any registered voter shall be eligible to file a special application to receive absentee ballots for all elections in which he is eligible to vote. Such application shall be on a form approved by the State Board. The absentee ballots sent to a voter on the permanent absentee voter list shall be sent to the address in the voter's registration record, except as provided in subdivision C 1.

B. In accordance with procedures established by the State Board, the general registrar shall retain the application, enroll the applicant on a permanent absentee voter list, and process the applicant's request for an absentee ballot for each succeeding election. The applicant shall specify by party designation the primary ballots he is requesting.

C. The State Board shall prescribe the process by which a voter on the permanent absentee voter list may:

1. Request that his absentee ballot for (i) a single election or (ii) a primary election and the following general election be sent to an address other than the address on his voter registration record.

2. Request a primary ballot for a political party other than the one he specified on his application for permanent absentee voter status for a single primary election.

3. Change his political party selection for all succeeding primary elections.

D. A voter shall be removed from the permanent absentee voter list if (i) the voter requests in writing to be removed from the list, (ii) the voter's registration is canceled pursuant to § 24.2-427, (iii) the voter's registration is placed on inactive status pursuant to § 24.2-428 or 24.2-428.1, or (iv) the voter moves to a different address not in the same county or city of his registration.

2001, cc. 789, 850; 2008, c 880; 2019, cc. 668, 669; 2020, cc. 1156, 1201.

§ 24.2-703.2. Replacement absentee ballots for certain disabled or ill voters; penalty.

A person with a disability or illness who has applied for and has been sent an absentee ballot who did not receive or has lost the absentee ballot on or before the Saturday before the election may obtain a replacement absentee ballot. In such case, the voter may request a replacement absentee ballot by the close of business for the local elections office on the Saturday before election day and designate, in writing, a representative to obtain a replacement absentee ballot on his behalf from the general registrar and to return the properly completed ballot as directed by the general registrar no later than the close of polls on the day of election for which the absentee ballot is valid. The representative shall be age 18 or older and shall not be an elected official, a candidate for elected office, or the deputy, spouse, parent, or child of an elected official or candidate. The voter and representative shall complete the form prescribed by the State Board to implement the provisions of this section. The form shall include a statement signed by the voter that he did not receive the ballot or has lost the ballot. Statements on the form shall be subject to felony penalties for making false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016.

2002, cc. 23, 141; 2008, c. 880; 2015, cc. 644, 645; 2019, cc. 668, 669; 2020, cc. 1149, 1151, 1201.

§ 24.2-704. Applications and ballots for persons requiring assistance in voting; penalty.

A. The application for an absentee ballot shall provide space for the applicant to indicate that he will require assistance to vote his absentee ballot by reason of blindness, disability, or inability to read or write.

B. On receipt of an application from an applicant who indicated that he will require assistance due to a visual impairment or print disability, the general registrar shall offer to provide to the applicant a ballot marking tool with screen reader assistive technology made available pursuant to § 24.2-103.2. If the applicant opts to use such tool, the general registrar shall send by mail to him a ballot return envelope and accessible instructions provided by the Department for using such tool and returning the marked ballot. The general registrar shall cause the outer envelope containing the ballot return envelope and accessible instructions to have a tactile marking that identifies the outer envelope as the outer envelope to the voter. For purposes of this section, "tactile marking" includes a hole punch, a cut corner, or a tactile sticker.

An absentee voter using such tool shall return the marked absentee ballot in accordance with the instructions provided by the Department.

No ballot marked with the electronic ballot marking tool shall be rejected because the ballot was printed on regular paper. No ballot marked with the electronic ballot marking tool shall be rejected on the basis of the position of the voter's signature or address on the ballot return envelope as long as the voter's signature or address is anywhere on the ballot return envelope.

C. On receipt of an application from an applicant marked to indicate that he will require assistance due to any other disability or if an applicant offered the ballot marking tool pursuant to subsection B declines to use such tool, the general registrar shall deliver, with the items required by § 24.2-706, the voter assistance form furnished by the State Board pursuant to § 24.2-649. The voter and any person assisting him shall complete the form by signing the request for assistance and statement required of the assistant. If the voter is unable to sign the request, the witness will note this fact on the line for signature of voter. The provisions of § 24.2-649 shall apply to absentee voting and assistance for absentee voters. Any person who willfully violates the provisions of this section or § 24.2-649 in providing assistance to a person who is voting absentee shall be guilty of a Class 5 felony.

1984, c. 775, § 24.1-228.2; 1993, c. 641; 1996, c. 295; 2006, c. 242; 2008, c. 880; 2015, cc. 644, 645; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 255, 471, 522.

§ 24.2-705. Emergency applications and absentee ballots for individual emergencies.

A. Any person registered and otherwise qualified to vote may request at any time prior to 2:00 p.m. on the day preceding the election that he be permitted to vote by emergency absentee ballot with the assistance of his designated representative. The Department shall prescribe a form and the instructions for submitting such a request to the general registrar that shows that the voter requesting an emergency absentee ballot (i) was unable to apply for an absentee ballot by the deadline due to his hospitalization or illness, or the hospitalization, illness, or death of a spouse, child, or parent, or other emergency found to justify receipt of an emergency absentee ballot or (ii) will be unable to vote on election day due to his hospitalization or illness, the hospitalization, illness, or death of a spouse, child, or parent, or other emergency found to justify receipt of an emergency absentee ballot that occurred after the deadline for applying for an absentee ballot.

The representative designated by a voter for purposes of this subsection shall be age 18 or older and shall not be an elected official, a candidate for elected office, or the deputy, spouse, parent, or child of an elected official or candidate.

The requesting voter shall sign the form and state, subject to felony penalties for making false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016, that to the best of his knowledge and belief the facts contained in the form are true and correct. His signature shall be witnessed by the designated representative, who shall sign and return the completed form to the office of the general registrar no later than 5:00 p.m. on the day preceding the election. If the requesting voter is blind or physically unable to sign the form, his designated representative shall write on the signature line that the voter is blind or unable to sign his form.

On receipt of the completed form and a determination of the qualification of the requesting voter to vote, the general registrar shall provide, in accordance with the applicable provisions of this chapter, an absentee ballot to the designated representative for delivery to the requesting voter.

The requesting voter shall vote the absentee ballot as provided by law and mark it in the presence of the designated representative. The designated representative shall complete a statement, subject to felony penalties for making false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016, that (i) he is the designated representative of the requesting voter; (ii) he personally delivered the ballot to the voter who applied for it; (iii) in his presence, the voter marked the ballot, the ballot was placed in the envelope provided, the envelope was sealed, and the statement on its reverse side was signed by the requesting voter; and (iv) the ballot was returned, under seal, to the general registrar at the registrar's office.

The ballot shall be counted only if the ballot is received by the general registrar prior to the close of polls, and the general registrar shall deliver the ballot to the officers of election at each appropriate precinct pursuant to § 24.2-710.

B. A qualified voter may vote absentee in person in the office of the general registrar through 2:00 p.m. on the day immediately preceding the election by complying with the requirements of § 24.2-643 and affirming that one of the following emergency circumstances will prevent him from voting on election day:

1. After 12:00 p.m. on the Saturday before the election, an obligation arose that requires the voter be absent from his county or city on election day for (i) his business, profession, or occupation; (ii) the hospitalization of the voter or a member of his immediate family; or (iii) the death of a member of his immediate family. For purposes of this subdivision, "immediate family" means the child, grandchild, parent, grandparent, legal guardian, sibling, or spouse of the voter.

2. The voter is an officer of election who was assigned after 12:00 p.m. on the Saturday before the election to work in a precinct other than his own on election day.

C. The Commissioner of Elections may act administratively to facilitate absentee voting by qualified voters who are emergency workers or utility workers or who otherwise respond to and offer assistance to an area in which a state of emergency has been declared by an appropriate authority. These administrative actions may include central issuance and acceptance of absentee ballots for federal and state elections using the systems and procedures developed for voters who are members of a uniformed service.

1989, c. 192, § 24.1-229.1; 1990, c. 200; 1993, cc. 420, 641; 1996, c. 224; 1997, cc. 523, 539; 1999, c. 590; 2001, c. 622; 2006, c. 297; 2008, c. 880; 2015, cc. 644, 645; 2020, cc. 289, 1157, 1163; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 471.

§ 24.2-706. Duty of general registrar on receipt of application; statement of voter.

A. On receipt of an application for an absentee ballot, the general registrar shall enroll the name and address of each registered applicant on an absentee voter applicant list that shall be maintained in the office of the general registrar with a file of the applications received. The list shall be available for inspection and copying and the applications shall be available for inspection only by any registered voter during regular office hours. Upon request and for a reasonable fee, the Department of Elections shall provide an electronic copy of the absentee voter applicant list to any political party or candidate. Such list shall be used only for campaign and political purposes. Any list made available for inspection and copying under this section shall contain the post office box address in lieu of the residence street address for any individual who has furnished at the time of registration or subsequently, in addition to his street address, a post office box address pursuant to subsection B of § 24.2-418.

No list or application containing an individual's social security number, or any part thereof, or the individual's day and month of birth, shall be made available for inspection or copying by anyone. The Department of Elections shall prescribe procedures for general registrars to make the information in the lists and applications available in a manner that does not reveal social security numbers or parts thereof, or an individual's day and month of birth.

B. The completion and timely delivery of an application for an absentee ballot shall be construed to be an offer by the applicant to vote in the election.

The general registrar shall note on each application received whether the applicant is or is not a registered voter. In reviewing the application for an absentee ballot, the general registrar shall not reject the application of any individual because of an error or omission on any record or paper relating to the application, if such error or omission is not material in determining whether such individual is qualified to vote absentee.

C. If the application has been properly completed and signed and the applicant is a registered voter of the precinct in which he offers to vote, the general registrar shall, at the time when the printed ballots for the election are available, send by the deadline set out in § 24.2-612, obtaining a certificate or other evidence of either first-class or expedited mailing or delivery from the United States Postal Service or other commercial delivery provider, or deliver to him in person in the office of the registrar, the following items and nothing else:

1. An envelope containing the folded ballot, sealed and marked "Ballot within. Do not open except in presence of a witness."

2. An envelope for resealing the marked ballot, on which envelope is printed the following:

"Statement of Voter."

"I do hereby state, subject to felony penalties for making false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016, that my FULL NAME is ________ (last, first, middle); that I am now or have been at some time since last November's general election a legal resident of ________ (STATE YOUR LEGAL RESIDENCE IN VIRGINIA including the house number, street name or rural route address, city, zip code); that I received the enclosed ballot(s) upon application to the registrar of such county or city; that I opened the envelope marked 'ballot within' and marked the ballot(s) in the presence of the witness, without assistance or knowledge on the part of anyone as to the manner in which I marked it (or I am returning the form required to report how I was assisted); that I then sealed the ballot(s) in this envelope; and that I have not voted and will not vote in this election at any other time or place.

Signature of Voter ____________

Date ____________________

Signature of witness ___________"

For elections held after January 1, 2004, instead of the envelope containing the above oath, an envelope containing the standard oath prescribed by the presidential designee under § 101(b)(7) of the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (52 U.S.C. § 20301 et seq.) shall be sent to voters who are qualified to vote absentee under that Act.

When this statement has been properly completed and signed by the registered voter and witnessed, his ballot shall not be subject to challenge pursuant to § 24.2-651.

3. An envelope, properly addressed and postage prepaid, for the return of the ballot to the general registrar by mail or by the applicant in person, or to a drop-off location.

4. Printed instructions for completing the ballot and statement on the envelope and returning the ballot. Such instructions shall include information on the sites of all drop-off locations in the county or city.

For federal elections held after January 1, 2004, for any voter who is required by subparagraph (b) of 52 U.S.C. § 21083 of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 to show identification the first time the voter votes in a federal election in the state, the printed instructions shall direct the voter to submit with his ballot (i) a copy of a current and valid photo identification or (ii) a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck or other government document that shows the name and address of the voter. Such individual who desires to vote by mail but who does not submit one of the forms of identification specified in this paragraph may cast such ballot by mail and the ballot shall be counted as a provisional ballot under the provisions of § 24.2-653.01. The Department of Elections shall provide instructions to the electoral boards for the handling and counting of such provisional ballots pursuant to § 24.2-653.01 and this section.

5. For any voter entitled to vote absentee under the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act (52 U.S.C. § 20301 et seq.), information provided by the Department of Elections specific to the voting rights and responsibilities for such citizens, or information provided by the registrar specific to the status of the voter registration and absentee ballot application of such voter, may be included.

The envelopes and instructions shall be in the form prescribed by the Department of Elections.

D. The general registrar may contract with a third party for the printing, assembly, and mailing of the items set forth in subsection C. The general registrar shall provide to the contractor in a timely manner the names, addresses, precincts, and ballot styles of voters requesting an absentee ballot by mail. The vendor shall provide to the general registrar a report of the voters to whom the absentee ballot materials have been sent.

E. If the applicant completes his application in person under § 24.2-701 at a time when the printed ballots for the election are available, he may request that the general registrar send to him by mail the items set forth in subdivisions C 1 through 4, instead of casting the ballot in person. Such request shall be made no later than 5:00 p.m. on the eleventh day prior to the election in which the applicant offers to vote, and the general registrar shall send those items to the applicant by mail, obtaining a certificate or other evidence of mailing.

F. If the applicant is a covered voter, as defined in § 24.2-452, the general registrar, at the time when the printed ballots for the election are available, shall mail by the deadline set forth in § 24.2-612 or deliver in person to the applicant in the office of the general registrar the items as set forth in subdivisions C 1 through 4 and, if necessary, an application for registration. A certificate or other evidence of mailing shall not be required. If the applicant requests that such items be sent by electronic transmission, the general registrar, at the time when the printed ballots for the election are available but not later than the deadline set forth in § 24.2-612, shall send by electronic transmission the blank ballot, the form for the envelope for returning the marked ballot, and instructions to the voter. Such materials shall be sent using the official email address or fax number of the office of the general registrar published on the Department of Elections website. The State Board of Elections may prescribe by regulation the format of the email address used for transmitting ballots to eligible voters. A general registrar may also use electronic transmission facilities provided by the Federal Voting Assistance Program. The voted ballot shall be returned to the general registrar as otherwise required by this chapter.

G. The circuit courts shall have jurisdiction to issue an injunction to enforce the provisions of this section upon the application of (i) any aggrieved voter, (ii) any candidate in an election district in whole or in part in the court's jurisdiction where a violation of this section has occurred, or is likely to occur, or (iii) the campaign committee or the appropriate district political party chairman of such candidate. Any person who fails to discharge his duty as provided in this section through willful neglect of duty and with malicious intent shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor as provided in subsection A of § 24.2-1001.

Code 1950, §§ 24-327, 24-332, 24-333, 24-345.6, 24-345.7; 1952, c. 509; 1956, c. 525; 1958, c. 351; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-229; 1971, Ex. Sess., cc. 119, 247, 265; 1972, c. 620; 1974, c. 428; 1975, c. 515; 1977, c. 490; 1978, c. 778; 1980, c. 639; 1981, c. 425; 1983, c. 461; 1988, cc. 624, 691; 1993, c. 641; 1994, cc. 633, 656; 1996, c. 253; 2000, c. 421; 2001, cc. 621, 866; 2002, cc. 785, 819; 2003, cc. 247, 478; 2004, c. 410; 2006, c. 438; 2007, c. 318; 2008, cc. 106, 300, 379; 2009, cc. 345, 405, 873; 2010, cc. 213, 316, 449, 538, 645, 812; 2011, cc. 427, 458; 2012, c. 393; 2015, cc. 313, 644, 645; 2016, cc. 16, 463; 2019, cc. 668, 669; 2020, cc. 289, 735, 1149, 1151, 1201; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 246, 471, 522.

§ 24.2-707. How ballots marked and returned.

A. On receipt of a mailed absentee ballot, the voter shall, in the presence of a witness, (i) open the sealed envelope marked "ballot within" and (ii) mark and refold the ballot, as provided in §§ 24.2-644 and 24.2-646 without assistance and without making known how he marked the ballot, except as provided by § 24.2-704.

After the voter has marked his absentee ballot, he shall (a) enclose the ballot in the envelope provided for that purpose, (b) seal the envelope, (c) fill in and sign the statement printed on the back of the envelope in the presence of a witness, who shall sign the same envelope, (d) enclose the ballot envelope and any required assistance form within the envelope directed to the general registrar, and (e) seal that envelope. A voter's failure to provide in the statement on the back of the envelope his full middle name or his middle initial shall not be a material omission, rendering his ballot void, unless the voter failed to provide in the statement on the back of the envelope his full first and last name. A voter's failure to provide the date, or any part of the date, including the year, on which he signed the statement printed on the back of the envelope shall not be considered a material omission and shall not render his ballot void. A voter's failure to have a witness sign the absentee ballot return envelope for any election held during a declared state of emergency related to a communicable disease of public health threat shall not be considered a material omission and shall not render his ballot void.

B. A mailed absentee ballot shall be returned (i) by mail to the office of the general registrar, (ii) by the voter in person to the general registrar, or (iii) to a drop-off location established pursuant to § 24.2-707.1. For purposes of this subsection, "mail" includes a delivery by a commercial delivery service but does not include delivery by a personal courier service or other individual except as provided by §§ 24.2-703.2 and 24.2-705.

C. Failure to follow the procedures set forth in this section shall render the applicant's ballot void.

Code 1950, §§ 24-334, 24-337; 1956, c. 525; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-232; 1972, c. 620; 1973, c. 30; 1974, c. 428; 1975, c. 515; 1978, c. 778; 1981, c. 425; 1993, c. 641; 1996, c. 393; 1997, cc. 429, 450; 2001, cc. 617, 624; 2002, cc. 785, 819; 2003, cc. 478, 1015; 2006, c. 438; 2014, cc. 453, 574, 575; 2015, cc. 313, 644, 645; 2019, cc. 668, 669; 2020, c. 289; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 235, 471, 522.

§ 24.2-707.1. Drop-off locations for return of absentee ballots.

A. The general registrar of each county or city shall establish at the office of the general registrar and each voter satellite office in operation for an election a drop-off location for the purpose of allowing the deposit of completed absentee ballots for such election. On the day of the election, there shall also be a drop-off location at each polling place in operation for the election. The general registrar may establish additional drop-off locations within the county or city as he deems necessary. All drop-off locations shall be accessible; be on public property, unless located at a polling place; and otherwise comply with any criteria for drop-off locations set by the Department.

B. The Department shall set standards for the establishment and operation of drop-off locations, including necessary security requirements. The Department shall submit such standards annually by October 1 to the Chairmen of the House and Senate Committees on Privileges and Elections, the Senate Committee on Finance and Appropriations, and the House Committee on Appropriations.

C. Not later than 55 days prior to any election, the general registrar shall post notice of the sites of the drop-off locations in the locality in the office of the general registrar and on the official website of the county or city. Such notice shall remain in the office of the general registrar and on the official website of the county or city for the duration of the period during which absentee ballots may be returned.

D. Absentee ballots shall be collected from drop-off locations in accordance with the instructions provided by the Department. Such instructions shall include chain of custody requirements and recordkeeping requirements. Absentee ballots shall be collected at least daily by (i) two officers of election or electoral board members representing the two major political parties where practicable or (ii) two employees from the office of the general registrar, unless the drop-off location is in the office of the general registrar, in which case the general registrar or an assistant general registrar may collect the absentee ballots.

2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 471, 522.

§ 24.2-708. Return of unused ballots; voting by applicant who did not receive or lost ballot; defaced ballots.

A. Any person who has applied for and received an absentee ballot may choose not to vote absentee and shall be entitled to cast a ballot in accordance with the provisions of this subsection.

1. The voter may, prior to the day of the election, return the ballot to the general registrar (i) unopened in the sealed envelope in which it was sent to him or (ii) opened and unmarked.

The general registrar shall note on the voter's record, opposite the name of the voter, the fact that the ballot was returned unused and the date of the return and shall carefully preserve the ballot with all ballots returned unused. Such ballots shall be delivered, with other returned ballots, to the officers of election on election day. The voter shall then be entitled to vote a regular ballot in the office of the general registrar, or he may choose to vote at his proper polling place or at a central absentee voter precinct on the day of the election. On the day of the election, (a) if the general registrar or an officer of election is able to confirm the return of the unused ballot, the voter shall be entitled to vote a regular ballot and (b) if the general registrar or an officer of election is unable to confirm the return of the unused ballot, the voter shall be entitled to cast a provisional ballot pursuant to § 24.2-653.1.

2. The voter may, on the day of the election, return his unused ballot to his proper polling place or central absentee voter precinct, and the unused ballot shall be preserved with other unused ballots. The voter shall then be entitled to vote a regular ballot.

3. The voter may, on the day of the election, offer to vote at his proper polling place or at a central absentee voter precinct without returning his unused ballot, and he shall be entitled to cast a provisional ballot pursuant to § 24.2-653.1.

B. Any person who has applied for and has been sent an absentee ballot but does not receive the ballot or loses the ballot shall be entitled to cast a ballot in accordance with the provisions of this subsection.

1. The voter may, prior to the day of the election, present to the general registrar or officer of election a statement signed by him that he did not receive the ballot or has lost the ballot. Such statement shall be made subject to felony penalties for making false statements as pursuant to § 24.2-1016, and the voter shall then be entitled to cast a regular ballot.

2. The voter may, on the day of the election, offer to vote at his proper polling place or at a central absentee voter precinct, and he shall be entitled to cast a provisional ballot pursuant to § 24.2-653.1.

C. Any person who has applied for and has been sent an absentee ballot that has been unintentionally or accidentally defaced and rendered unfit for voting shall be entitled to cast a ballot in accordance with the provisions of this subsection.

1. The voter may, prior to the day of the election, present the defaced ballot to the general registrar or an officer of election, and the ballot shall be marked spoiled by the general registrar or an officer of election and placed in a spoiled-ballot envelope to be retained with the ballots for the election. The voter shall then be entitled to vote a regular ballot in the office of the general registrar, or he may choose to vote at his proper polling place or at a central absentee voter precinct on the day of the election. On the day of the election, (i) if the general registrar or an officer of election is able to confirm the return of the defaced ballot, the voter shall be entitled to vote a regular ballot and (ii) if the general registrar or an officer of election is unable to confirm the return of the defaced ballot, the voter shall be entitled to cast a provisional ballot pursuant to § 24.2-653.1.

2. The voter may, on the day of the election, present his defaced or unfit ballot to his proper polling place or central absentee voter precinct, and the defaced or unfit ballot shall be preserved with other spoiled ballots. The voter shall then be entitled to vote a regular ballot.

Code 1950, §§ 24-336, 24-340.1; 1954, c. 511; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-233; 1974, c. 428; 1978, c. 778; 1993, c. 641; 1999, c. 725; 2006, c. 283; 2010, c. 348; 2012, c. 645; 2014, c. 600; 2015, cc. 644, 645; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 471.

§ 24.2-709. Ballot to be returned in manner prescribed by law.

A. Any ballot returned to the office of the general registrar or to a drop-off location in any manner except as prescribed by law shall be void. Absentee ballots shall be returned to the general registrar or to a drop-off location before the closing of the polls. Any voter who is in line to return an absentee ballot at a drop-off location by 7:00 p.m. on the day of the election shall be permitted to deposit his absentee ballot. The registrar receiving the ballot shall (i) seal the ballot in an envelope with the statement or declaration of the voter, or both, attached to the outside and (ii) mark on each envelope the date, time, and manner of delivery. No returned absentee ballot shall be deemed void because (a) the inner envelope containing the voted ballot is imperfectly sealed so long as the outside envelope containing the ballot envelope is sealed or (b) it is not returned sealed in the outside envelope so long as it is returned sealed in the inner envelope.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A, any absentee ballot (i) returned to the general registrar after the closing of the polls on election day but before noon on the third day after the election and (ii) postmarked on or before the date of the election shall be counted pursuant to the procedures set forth in this chapter if the voter is found entitled to vote. For purposes of this subsection, a postmark shall include any other official indicia of confirmation of mailing by the United States Postal Service or other postal or delivery service.

C. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection A, any absentee ballot (i) received after the close of the polls on any election day, (ii) received before 5:00 p.m. on the second business day before the State Board meets to ascertain the results of the election pursuant to this title, (iii) requested on or before but not sent by the deadline for making absentee ballots available under § 24.2-612, and (iv) cast by a covered voter, as defined in § 24.2-452, shall be counted pursuant to the procedures set forth in this chapter if the voter is found entitled to vote. The electoral board shall prepare an amended certified abstract, which shall include the results of such ballots, and shall deliver such abstract to the State Board by the business day prior to its meeting pursuant to this title, and shall deliver a copy of such abstract to the general registrar to be available for inspection when his office is open for business.

D. Notwithstanding the provisions of clause (i) of subsection B of § 24.2-427, an absentee ballot returned by a voter in compliance with § 24.2-707 and this section who dies prior to the counting of absentee ballots on election day shall be counted pursuant to the procedures set forth in this chapter if the voter is found to have been entitled to vote at the time that he returned the ballot.

Code 1950, § 24-328; 1956, c. 525; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-230; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 119; 1975, c. 515; 1993, c. 641; 2002, cc. 785, 819; 2006, c. 297; 2010, cc. 449, 645; 2011, c. 654; 2012, c. 353; 2014, c. 580; 2015, cc. 644, 645; 2019, cc. 668, 669; 2020, cc. 288, 933, 1149, 1151, 1201; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 471, 522.

§ 24.2-709.1. Processing returned absentee ballots before election day; cure process.

A. On receipt of an absentee ballot returned in person or by mail to the office of the general registrar or to a drop-off location before election day, the general registrar shall mark the date of receipt in the voter's record and shall examine the ballot envelope to verify completion of the required voter affirmation. A voter affirmation statement shall not be deemed to be incomplete on the sole basis of the voter's failure to provide (i) his full name or his middle initial, as long as the voter provided his full first and last name, or (ii) the date, or any part of the date, including the year, on which he signed the statement.

B. If the voter affirmation has been completed as required, the general registrar may open the sealed ballot envelope and insert the ballot in optical scan counting equipment or other secure ballot container without initiating any ballot count totals. If a general registrar does not choose to do so, the sealed ballot envelope shall be deposited into a secure container provided for such purpose, in which it shall remain until the general registrar initiates the process of opening the sealed ballot envelopes deposited into the secure container and inserting such ballots into optical scan counting equipment without initiating any ballot count totals. Such process shall be at the general registrar's discretion at any time prior to the seventh day immediately preceding the election but shall be mandatory beginning on the seventh day immediately preceding the election.

At least two officers of election, one representing each political party, shall be present during all hours when sealed ballot envelopes are opened as authorized in or required by this subsection. No person present while sealed ballot envelopes are opened and ballots are inserted into counting equipment shall disclose any information concerning the ballots.

In the event that circumstances prevent a general registrar from complying with the provisions of this subsection, such failure shall not be grounds for contesting the election pursuant to Article 2 (§ 24.2-803 et seq.) of Chapter 8 and shall not invalidate the absentee ballots.

C. For any absentee ballot received by the Friday immediately preceding the day of the election, if the general registrar finds during the examination of the ballot envelope that the required voter affirmation was not correctly or completely filled out or that a procedure required by § 24.2-707 was not properly followed, and such error or failure would render the ballot void by law, the general registrar shall enter into the voter's record in the voter registration system that the absentee ballot has an issue requiring correction in order for it to be counted. This information shall be included on any absentee voter applicant list provided pursuant to subsection C of § 24.2-710.

Within three days of such finding, the registrar shall notify the voter in writing or by email of the error or failure and shall provide information to the voter on how to correct the issue so his ballot may be counted. The voter shall be entitled to make such necessary corrections before noon on the third day after the election, and his ballot shall then be counted pursuant to the procedures set forth in this chapter if he is found to be entitled to vote. No absentee ballot needing correction shall be delivered to the officers of election at the appropriate precinct until the voter is provided the opportunity to make the necessary corrections pursuant to this subsection.

The general registrar may issue a new absentee ballot to the voter if necessary and shall preserve the first ballot with other spoiled ballots.

2007, cc. 171, 281; 2012, cc. 328, 486; 2013, c. 501; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 471, 522.

§ 24.2-710. Absentee voter applicant lists.

A. The provisions of this subsection shall apply only to those localities not using an electronic pollbook. On the day before the election, the general registrar shall (i) make out in triplicate on a form prescribed by the State Board the absentee voter applicant list containing the names of all persons who applied for an absentee ballot through the third day before the election and (ii) by noon on the day before the election, deliver two copies of the list to the electoral board. The general registrar shall make out a supplementary list containing the names of all persons voting absentee in person or applying to vote absentee pursuant to § 24.2-705 for delivery by 5:00 p.m. on the day before the election. The supplementary list shall be deemed part of the absentee voter applicant list and shall be prepared and delivered in accordance with the instructions of the State Board. The general registrar shall maintain one copy of the list in his office for two years as a public record open for inspection upon request during regular office hours.

B. On the day before the election, the electoral board shall deliver one copy of the list provided to it by the general registrar to the chief officer of election for each precinct. The list shall be attested by the secretary of the electoral board who shall be responsible for the delivery of the attested lists to the chief officer of election for each precinct.

Absentee ballots shall be accepted only from voters whose names appear on the attested list.

C. Upon request, the State Board shall provide an electronic copy of the absentee voter applicant list to any political party or candidate. Such lists shall be used only for campaign and political purposes. In no event shall any list furnished under this section contain (a) any voter's social security number or any part thereof, (b) any voter's day and month of birth, or (c) the residence address of any voter who has provided a post office box address to be used on public lists pursuant to § 24.2-418.

Code 1950, §§ 24-327, 24-330, 24-332, 24-333, 24-338, 24-338.1, 24-339, 24-340, 24-341, 24-342, 24-345.6, 24-345.7, 24-345.8; 1952, c. 509; 1954, cc. 511, 523, 539; 1956, c. 525; 1958, c. 351; 1962, c. 536; 1964, c. 557; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-229, 24.1-231, 24.1-234; 1971, Ex. Sess., cc. 119, 247, 265; 1972, cc. 620, 621; 1974, c. 428, § 24.1-233.1; 1975, c. 515; 1977, c. 490; 1978, c. 778; 1980, c. 639; 1981, c. 425; 1983, c. 461; 1988, cc. 624, 691; 1991, c. 3; 1993, c. 641; 1997, c. 464; 2001, cc. 622, 799; 2006, c. 297; 2010, cc. 601, 812; 2017, c. 275; 2020, cc. 735, 1157; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 471, 522.

§ 24.2-711. Duties of electoral board, general registrar, and officers of election.

A. Before the polls open, the officers of election at each precinct shall mark, for each person on the absentee voter applicant list, the letters "AB" (meaning absentee ballot) in the voting record column on the pollbook. The pollbook may be so marked prior to election day by the general registrar, the secretary of the electoral board, or staff under the direction of the general registrar or the secretary, or when the pollbook is produced by the State Board pursuant to § 24.2-404. If the pollbook has been marked prior to election day, before the polls open the officers of election at each precinct shall check the marks for accuracy and make any additions or corrections required.

The chief officer of election shall keep the copy of the absentee voter applicant list in the polling place as a public record open for inspection upon request at all times while the polls are open.

B. Before noon on the day following the election, the general registrar shall deliver all applications for absentee ballots for the election, under seal, to the clerk of the circuit court for the county or city, except that the general registrar may retain all applications for absentee ballots until the electoral board has ascertained the results of the election pursuant to § 24.2-671, and has determined the validity of and counted all provisional ballots pursuant to § 24.2-653.01, at which point all applications shall then be delivered, under seal, to the clerk of the circuit court for the county or city. The clerk shall retain the sealed applications with the counted ballots.

C. The secretary of the electoral board shall deliver all absentee ballots received after the election to the clerk of the circuit court.

Code 1950, §§ 24-330, 24-338, 24-338.1, 24-339, 24-340, 24-341, 24-342, 24-345.8; 1952, c. 509; 1954, cc. 511, 523, 539; 1956, c. 525; 1962, c. 536; 1964, c. 557; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-231, 24.1-234; 1972, c. 621; 1974, c. 428, § 24.1-233.1; 1978, c. 778; 1981, c. 425; 1988, cc. 624, 691; 1991, c. 3; 1993, c. 641; 2001, c. 799; 2002, cc. 785, 819; 2003, c. 1015; 2006, c. 283; 2013, c. 501; 2014, cc. 453, 574, 575; 2017, c. 276; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 471, 522.

§ 24.2-711.1. Absentee ballots; confirmation of receipt; notice of reason for rejection.

A. The Secretary, in coordination with local election officials, shall implement a free-access system by which a voter may determine:

1. Whether the voter's application for an absentee ballot has been received and accepted; and

2. Whether the voter's absentee ballot has been received and the current status of the absentee ballot.

B. The electoral board of each county and city shall send a written explanation of the reason for rejection of an absentee ballot to the voter whose absentee ballot is rejected within 90 days of the date on which the ballot is rejected. The State Board of Elections shall promulgate instructions to implement the provisions of this section.

2002, c. 252; 2013, c. 537.

§ 24.2-712. Central absentee voter precincts; counting ballots.

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the governing body of each county or city shall establish one or more central absentee voter precincts in the courthouse or other public buildings for the purpose of receiving, counting, and recording absentee ballots cast in the county or city. A central absentee voter precinct shall be made by the governing body by ordinance; the ordinance shall state for which elections the precinct shall be used. The decision to abolish any absentee voter precinct shall be made by the governing body by ordinance. Immediate notification of either decision shall be sent to the Department of Elections and the electoral board.

B. Each central absentee voter precinct shall have at least three officers of election as provided for other precincts. The number of officers shall be determined by the electoral board and general registrar.

C. If any voter brings an unmarked ballot to the central absentee voter precinct on the day of the election, he shall be allowed to vote it. If any voter brings an unmarked ballot to the general registrar on or before the day of the election, he shall be allowed to vote it, and his ballot shall be delivered to the absentee voter precinct.

D. Absentee ballots shall be processed as required by § 24.2-709.1 by the officers of election at the central absentee voter precinct prior to the closing of the polls. In the case of machine-readable ballots, the ballot container shall be opened and the absentee ballots shall be inserted in the counting machines prior to the closing of the polls in accordance with procedures prescribed by the Department of Elections, including procedures to preserve ballot secrecy, but no ballot count totals by the machines shall be transmitted outside of the central absentee voter precinct until after the closing of the polls.

In the case of absentee ballots that are counted by hand, the officers of election shall begin tallying such ballots at any time after noon on the day of the election in accordance with the procedures prescribed by the Department of Elections, including procedures to preserve ballot secrecy. No counts of such tallies shall be determined or transmitted outside of the central absentee voter precinct until after the closing of the polls.

The use of cellular telephones or other communication devices shall be prohibited in the central absentee voter precinct during such processing and tallying and until the closing of the polls. Any person present in the central absentee voter precinct shall sign a statement under oath that he will not transmit any counts prior to the closing of the polls. Any person who transmits any counts in violation of this section is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

E. As soon as the polls are closed in the county or city, the officers of election at the central absentee voter precinct shall proceed promptly to ascertain and record the total vote given by all absentee ballots and report the results in the manner provided for counting and reporting ballots generally in Article 4 (§ 24.2-643 et seq.) of Chapter 6.

F. The electoral board or general registrar may provide that the officers of election for a central absentee voter precinct may be assigned to work all or a portion of the time that the precinct is open on election day subject to the following conditions:

1. The chief officer and the assistant chief officer, appointed pursuant to § 24.2-115 to represent the two political parties, are on duty at all times; and

2. No officer, political party representative, or other candidate representative shall leave the precinct after any ballots have been counted until the polls are closed and the count for the precinct is completed and reported.

G. The general registrar may provide that the central absentee voter precinct will open after 6:00 a.m. on the day of the election provided that the office of the general registrar will be open for the receipt of absentee ballots until the central absentee voter precinct is open and that the officers of election for the central absentee voter precinct obtain the absentee ballots returned to the general registrar's office for the purpose of counting the absentee ballots at the central absentee voter precinct and provided further that the central absentee voter precinct is the same location as the office of the general registrar.

1974, c. 428, § 24.1-233.1; 1978, c. 778; 1991, c. 3; 1993, c. 641; 1994, cc. 287, 742; 1998, cc. 549, 572; 2003, c. 1015; 2006, c. 297; 2008, c. 423; 2013, c. 501; 2014, cc. 540, 552, 576; 2015, cc. 313, 644, 645; 2016, cc. 18, 492; 2017, c. 711; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 471, 522.

§ 24.2-713. Emergency authority of the Commissioner of Elections.

The provisions of this section shall apply in the case of an emergency that will not allow sufficient time for the distribution and handling of absentee ballot applications and absentee ballots, in accordance with the procedures of this title, for qualified voters who are unable to vote in person because of the emergency. The Commissioner of Elections shall have the authority to designate alternative methods and procedures to handle such applications and ballots. Nothing in this section shall authorize the counting of any absentee ballot returned after the polls have closed. For purposes of this section, "an emergency" shall mean (i) any emergency declared by the Governor pursuant to Chapter 3.2 (§ 44-146.13 et seq.) of Title 44, (ii) any emergency declared by the President of the United States or the governor of another state pursuant to law and confirmed by the Governor by the executive order as an emergency for the purposes of this section, or (iii) any public emergency that interferes with the electoral process or the opportunity for qualified voters to exercise their right to vote as determined by the Commissioner of Elections.

1994, c. 240; 2002, cc. 785, 819; 2013, c. 542.

§ 24.2-427. Cancellation of registration by voter or for persons known to be deceased or disqualified to vote.

A. Any registered voter may cancel his registration and have his name removed from the central registration records by signing an authorization for cancellation and mailing or otherwise submitting the signed authorization to the general registrar. When submitted by any means other than when notarized or in person, such cancellation must be made at least 22 days prior to an election in order to be valid in that election. The general registrar shall acknowledge receipt of the authorization and advise the voter in person or by first-class mail that his registration has been canceled within 10 days of receipt of such authorization.

B. The general registrar shall cancel the registration of (i) all persons known by him to be deceased or disqualified to vote by reason of a felony conviction or adjudication of incapacity; (ii) all persons known by him not to be United States citizens by reason of reports from the Department of Motor Vehicles pursuant to § 24.2-410.1 or from the Department of Elections based on information received from the Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements Program (SAVE Program) pursuant to subsection E of § 24.2-404 and in accordance with the requirements of subsection B1; (iii) all persons for whom a notice has been received, signed by the voter, or from the registration official of another jurisdiction that the voter has moved from the Commonwealth; and (iv) all persons for whom a notice has been received, signed by the voter, or from the registration official of another jurisdiction that the voter has registered to vote outside the Commonwealth, subsequent to his registration in Virginia. The notice received in clauses (iii) and (iv) shall be considered as a written request from the voter to have his registration cancelled. A voter's registration may be cancelled at any time during the year in which the general registrar discovers that the person is no longer entitled to be registered. The general registrar shall mail notice of any cancellation to the person whose registration is cancelled.

B1. The general registrar shall mail notice promptly to all persons known by him not to be United States citizens by reason of a report from the Department of Motor Vehicles pursuant to § 24.2-410.1 or from the Department of Elections based on information received from the Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements Program (SAVE Program) pursuant to subsection E of § 24.2-404 prior to cancelling their registrations. The notice shall inform the person of the report from the Department of Motor Vehicles or from the Department of Elections and allow the person to submit his sworn statement that he is a United States citizen within 14 days of the date that the notice was mailed. The general registrar shall cancel the registrations of such persons who do not respond within 14 days to the notice that they have been reported not to be United States citizens.

B2. The general registrar shall (i) process the Department's most recent list of persons convicted of felonies within 21 to 14 days before any primary or general election, (ii) cancel the registration of any registered voter shown to have been convicted of a felony who has not provided evidence that his right to vote has been restored, and (iii) send prompt notice to the person of the cancellation of his registration. If it appears that any registered voter has made a false statement on his registration application with respect to his having been convicted of a felony, the general registrar shall report the fact to the attorney for the Commonwealth for prosecution under § 24.2-1016 for a false statement made on his registration application.

C. The general registrar may cancel the registration of any person for whom a notice has been submitted to the Department of Motor Vehicles in accordance with the Driver License Compact set out in Article 18 (§ 46.2-483 et seq.) of Chapter 3 of Title 46.2 and forwarded to the general registrar, that the voter has moved from the Commonwealth; provided that the registrar shall mail notice of such cancellation to the person at both his new address, as reported to the Department of Motor Vehicles, and the address at which he had most recently been registered in Virginia. No general registrar may cancel registrations under this authority while the registration records are closed pursuant to § 24.2-416. No registrar may cancel the registration under this authority of any person entitled to register under the provisions of subsection A of § 24.2-420.1, and shall reinstate the registration of any otherwise qualified voter covered by subsection A of § 24.2-420.1 who applies to vote within four years of the date of cancellation.

Code 1950, §§ 24-59, 24-60, 24-60.1, 24-71 through 24-73, 24-90, 24-93, 24-94, 24-101, 24-111; 1958, c. 576; 1962, cc. 422, 536; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-46(12); 1972, c. 620; 1973, c. 30; 1974, c. 428; 1976, c. 616; 1979, c. 329; 1980, c. 639; 1982, c. 650; 1983, c. 398; 1984, c. 480; 1986, c. 558; 1990, c. 193; 1993, c. 641; 1996, cc. 72, 73; 1997, cc. 801, 805; 1999, c. 851; 2000, c. 857; 2001, c. 634; 2002, cc. 785, 819; 2006, cc. 926, 940; 2007, c. 318; 2008, c. 382; 2012, c. 686; 2013, c. 686; 2015, c. 740.

§ 24.2-428. Regular periodic review of registration records; notice to voters identified as having moved; placement on inactive status for failure to respond to notice.

A. The Department of Elections shall establish a voter list maintenance program using the change of address information supplied by the United States Postal Service through its licensees or by other reliable sources to identify voters whose addresses may have changed. Any such program shall be regular and periodic and shall be conducted at least annually. The program shall be completed not later than ninety days prior to the date of a federal primary or federal general election.

B. If it appears from information provided by the Postal Service or by other reliable sources that a voter has moved to a different address in the same county or city in which the voter is currently registered, the Department shall provide to the general registrar the information necessary to change the registration records to show the new address, and the Department or the general registrar shall send to the new address of the voter by forwardable mail, a notice of the change, along with a postage prepaid, pre-addressed return card by which the voter may verify or correct the address information.

C. If it appears from information provided by the Postal Service or by other reliable sources that a voter has moved to a different address not in the same county or city, the Department or the general registrar shall send to the last known address of the voter by forwardable mail, a notice on a form prescribed by the Department, along with a postage prepaid and pre-addressed return card on which the voter may state his current address.

D. The registered voter shall complete and sign the return card subject to felony penalties for making false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016.

E. The general registrar shall correct his registration records from the information obtained from the return card. If the information indicates that the registered voter has moved to another general registrar's jurisdiction within the Commonwealth, the general registrar shall transfer the registration record, along with the return card, to the appropriate general registrar who shall treat the request for a change of address as a request for transfer and shall send a voter registration card as confirmation of the transfer to the voter pursuant to § 24.2-424. If the general registrar does not receive the return card provided for in subsection C of this section within thirty days after it is sent to the voter, the registered voter's name shall be placed on inactive status. A registered voter's failure to receive the notice shall not affect the validity of the inactivation.

Code 1950, §§ 24-96, 24-97, 24-107; 1954, c. 690; 1962, c. 536; 1964, c. 538; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-59, 24.1-60; 1972, c. 620; 1973, c. 30; 1975, c. 515; 1976, c. 616; 1982, c. 650; 1986, c. 241; 1990, c. 313; 1991, c. 10; 1993, c. 641; 1996, cc. 72, 73; 2000, c. 857; 2015, c. 740.

§ 24.2-428.1. Other procedures for assigning registered voters to inactive status.

In addition to the voter list maintenance program provided for in § 24.2-428, the general registrar and the registered voter shall follow the confirmation notification procedures set forth in subsections C through E of § 24.2-428 if a voter provides an address on a candidate or referendum petition that differs from the address for the voter on the voter registration system or if any of the following documents sent to the registered voter are returned by the Postal Service as undeliverable:

1. An acknowledgment of registration;

2. An acknowledgment of transfer to a new address;

3. An absentee ballot or application for an absentee ballot sent or provided in accordance with Chapter 7 (§ 24.2-700 et seq.);

4. Notification to a voter after a precinct reassignment;

5. Notification of a change of address sent to a voter in accordance with subsection B of § 24.2-428; or

6. Any official voter registration or election mail.

1996, cc. 72, 73; 2001, c. 625.

§ 24.2-429. Maintenance of accurate registration records by general registrar; notice and hearing before cancellation.

Whenever a registered voter is alleged to be improperly registered, except for reason of removal of residence from the precinct, either by the general registrar or by any three qualified voters of the county or city who make such an allegation to the general registrar, the registrar shall post at the courthouse or publish in a newspaper of general circulation in his county or city the name of the registered voter on a list of persons whose registrations are to be cancelled by the general registrar. The list shall be certified by the registrar and delivered or sent by mail to the county or city chairman of each political party. If sent by mail, the general registrar shall obtain a certificate of mailing. In addition to the posted or published list, the general registrar shall send a notice by mail to the last known address of each registered voter on the list, stating the reasons provided by law for the cancellation, the facts on which the cancellation is based, and when the registrar, at his office during regular office hours, will hear testimony produced for or against the right of persons named in the notice to be retained on the registration records. The hearings shall be held not less than ten days after the mailing of the notice, and in no event shall be within sixty days of the general election in November or within thirty days of any other election in the county or city.

At the hearing, the registrar shall hear the testimony produced and shall determine if the registered voter named in the notice is qualified to vote in the county or city. If the person is no longer qualified to vote, the registrar shall cancel the voter's registration. Nothing contained in this section shall prevent the registered voter from applying to the general registrar for a transfer to his proper jurisdiction, provided the registration records are not closed as provided by law. The general registrar may continue the hearing for a period of not more than thirty days in order to complete his examination. If the registered voter so challenged fails to appear and defend his right to be registered, his registration shall be cancelled by the general registrar.

Code 1950, §§ 24-59, 24-60, 24-60.1, 24-71 through 24-73, 24-90, 24-93, 24-94, 24-97, 24-98, 24-101, 24-107, 24-108, 24-111; 1954, c. 690; 1958, c. 576; 1962, cc. 422, 536; 1964, c. 538; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-46(13), 24.1-60, 24.1-61; 1972, c. 620; 1973, c. 30; 1974, c. 428; 1976, c. 616; 1979, c. 329; 1980, c. 639; 1982, c. 650; 1983, c. 398; 1984, c. 480; 1986, c. 558; 1990, c. 193; 1991, c. 10; 1993, c. 641; 1996, cc. 72, 73.

§ 24.2-429. Maintenance of accurate registration records by general registrar; notice and hearing before cancellation.

Whenever a registered voter is alleged to be improperly registered, except for reason of removal of residence from the precinct, either by the general registrar or by any three qualified voters of the county or city who make such an allegation to the general registrar, the registrar shall post at the courthouse or publish in a newspaper of general circulation in his county or city the name of the registered voter on a list of persons whose registrations are to be cancelled by the general registrar. The list shall be certified by the registrar and delivered or sent by mail to the county or city chairman of each political party. If sent by mail, the general registrar shall obtain a certificate of mailing. In addition to the posted or published list, the general registrar shall send a notice by mail to the last known address of each registered voter on the list, stating the reasons provided by law for the cancellation, the facts on which the cancellation is based, and when the registrar, at his office during regular office hours, will hear testimony produced for or against the right of persons named in the notice to be retained on the registration records. The hearings shall be held not less than ten days after the mailing of the notice, and in no event shall be within sixty days of the general election in November or within thirty days of any other election in the county or city.

At the hearing, the registrar shall hear the testimony produced and shall determine if the registered voter named in the notice is qualified to vote in the county or city. If the person is no longer qualified to vote, the registrar shall cancel the voter's registration. Nothing contained in this section shall prevent the registered voter from applying to the general registrar for a transfer to his proper jurisdiction, provided the registration records are not closed as provided by law. The general registrar may continue the hearing for a period of not more than thirty days in order to complete his examination. If the registered voter so challenged fails to appear and defend his right to be registered, his registration shall be cancelled by the general registrar.

Code 1950, §§ 24-59, 24-60, 24-60.1, 24-71 through 24-73, 24-90, 24-93, 24-94, 24-97, 24-98, 24-101, 24-107, 24-108, 24-111; 1954, c. 690; 1958, c. 576; 1962, cc. 422, 536; 1964, c. 538; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-46(13), 24.1-60, 24.1-61; 1972, c. 620; 1973, c. 30; 1974, c. 428; 1976, c. 616; 1979, c. 329; 1980, c. 639; 1982, c. 650; 1983, c. 398; 1984, c. 480; 1986, c. 558; 1990, c. 193; 1991, c. 10; 1993, c. 641; 1996, cc. 72, 73.

§ 24.2-430. Appeal from decision of registrar.

Any person whose registration was cancelled in accordance with the decision of the general registrar pursuant to § 24.2-429, shall have the right of appeal, as provided in § 24.2-422, to the circuit court of the county or city in which he offers to register. Any qualified voter of the county or city shall have the same right of appeal from the decision of the general registrar refusing to cancel the registration of any person alleged to be improperly registered.

Code 1950, §§ 24-99, 24-109; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-62; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-431. Petition to court objecting to registration.

In addition to challenging a voter's registration before the general registrar, any three qualified voters may file with the circuit court of the county or city in which they are registered, a petition stating their objections to the registration of any person whose name is on the registration records for their county or city. However, no petition may be filed if the only objection raised is based on removal of residence from the precinct.

Code 1950, § 24-102; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-63; 1993, c. 641; 1996, cc. 72, 73.

§ 24.2-432. Notice to person objected to and decision of court.

Fifteen days' notice shall be given by the petitioners to any person whose registration is objected to pursuant to § 24.2-431, and the court shall summarily proceed to determine the right of the person to registration. The determination shall be without the necessity of formal pleadings and in preference to all other matters on the docket. An order of the court concerning registration of the voter shall not be limited by the provisions of § 24.2-416 requiring the registration records to be closed.

Code 1950, § 24-103; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-64; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-433. (Effective until January 1, 2022) Appeal from decision of court.

From the judgment of the court, an appeal shall lie, as a matter of right, to the Supreme Court of Virginia. The appeal shall be placed on the privileged docket and be heard at the next ensuing session of the court.

Code 1950, § 24-104; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-65; 1974, c. 428; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-433. (Effective January 1, 2022) Appeal from decision of court.

From the judgment of the court, an appeal shall lie, as a matter of right, to the Court of Appeals. The appeal shall be placed on the privileged docket and be heard by the next available panel of the court.

Code 1950, § 24-104; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-65; 1974, c. 428; 1993, c. 641; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 489.

§ 24.2-434. Presumption if petition not brought within six months of registration.

Unless the petition provided for in § 24.2-431 is filed within six months after the registration of any person, it shall be conclusively presumed in all proceedings where the right of such person to registration arises, by election officers and by judicial tribunals, or in election contests of any kind and character, that such person has complied with all the procedural requirements of the law in making an application for registration.

Code 1950, § 24-105; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-66; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-435. Cancellation records to be retained for specified periods.

The registration records of voters whose registration has been cancelled pursuant to this article shall be retained for two years from the date of cancellation by the general registrar. However, the registration records of voters whose registration has been cancelled because the voter has moved to another state or the voter has submitted changes to his registration records shall be retained for four years.

Code 1950, §§ 24-59, 24-60, 24-60.1, 24-71 through 24-73, 24-90, 24-93, 24-94, 24-96, 24-101, 24-111; 1958, c. 576; 1962, cc. 422, 536; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-46(12), 24.1-59; 1972, c. 620; 1973, c. 30; 1974, c. 428; 1975, c. 515; 1976, c. 616; 1979, c. 329; 1980, c. 639; 1982, c. 650; 1983, c. 398; 1984, c. 480; 1986, cc. 241, 558; 1990, cc. 193, 313; 1993, c. 641; 2003, c. 238.

§ 24.2-444. Duties of general registrars and Department of Elections as to voter registration records; public inspection; exceptions.

A. Registration records shall be kept and preserved by the general registrar in compliance with §§ 2.2-3803, 2.2-3808, and 24.2-114. The Department shall provide to each general registrar, for each precinct in his county or city, lists of registered voters for inspection. The lists shall contain the name, address, year of birth, gender and all election districts applicable to each registered voter. The lists shall be opened to public inspection at the office of the general registrar when the office is open for business. New lists shall be provided not less than once each year to all localities except those in which an updated list is made available electronically for public inspection, and supplements containing additions, deletions, and changes shall be provided not less than (i) weekly during the 60 days preceding any general election and (ii) monthly at other times. Notwithstanding any other provision of law regarding the retention of records, upon receipt of any new complete list, the general registrar shall destroy the obsolete list and its supplements. The Department shall provide to each general registrar lists of persons denied registration for public inspection. Such lists may be provided electronically through the Virginia voter registration system and produced in whole or in part upon a request for public inspection.

B. The general registrars shall maintain for at least two years and shall make available for public inspection and copying and, where available, photocopying at a reasonable cost, all records concerning the implementation of programs and activities conducted for the purpose of ensuring the accuracy and currency of the registration records pursuant to §§ 24.2-427, 24.2-428 and 24.2-428.1, including lists of the names and addresses of all persons to whom notices are sent, and information concerning whether each person has responded to the notice as of the date that inspection of the records is made.

C. No list provided by the Department under subsection A nor any record made available for public inspection under subsection B shall contain any of the following information: (i) an individual's social security number, or any part thereof; (ii) the residence address of an individual who has furnished a post office box address in lieu of his residence address as authorized by subsection B of § 24.2-418; (iii) the declination by an individual to register to vote and related records; (iv) the identity of a voter registration agency through which a particular voter is registered; or (v) the day and month of birth of an individual. No voter registration records other than the lists provided by the Department under subsection A and the records made available under subsection B shall be open to public inspection.

Code 1950, § 24-113; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-56; 1993, c. 641; 1994, c. 656; 1996, cc. 72, 73; 2001, cc. 612, 626; 2003, c. 1015; 2007, cc. 311, 318; 2008, c. 379; 2009, c. 318; 2012, c. 353; 2015, c. 740.

§ 24.2-643. (Effective until January 1, 2022) Qualified voter permitted to vote; procedures at polling place; voter identification.

A. After the polls are open, each qualified voter at a precinct shall be permitted to vote. The officers of election shall ascertain that a person offering to vote is a qualified voter before admitting him to the voting booth and furnishing an official ballot to him.

B. An officer of election shall ask the voter for his full name and current residence address and the voter may give such information orally or in writing. The officer of election shall verify with the voter his full name and address and shall repeat, in a voice audible to party and candidate representatives present, the full name provided by the voter. The officer shall ask the voter to present any one of the following forms of identification: (i) his voter confirmation documents; (ii) his valid Virginia driver's license, his valid United States passport, or any other identification issued by the Commonwealth, one of its political subdivisions, or the United States, other than a driver privilege card issued under § 46.2-328.3; (iii) any valid student identification card issued by any institution of higher education located in the Commonwealth or any private school located in the Commonwealth; (iv) any valid student identification card containing a photograph of the voter and issued by any institution of higher education located in any other state or territory of the United States; (v) any valid employee identification card containing a photograph of the voter and issued by an employer of the voter in the ordinary course of the employer's business; or (vi) a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck, or other government document containing the name and address of the voter. The expiration date on a Virginia driver's license shall not be considered when determining the validity of the driver's license offered for purposes of this section.

Except as provided in subsection E, any voter who does not show one of the forms of identification specified in this subsection shall be allowed to vote after signing a statement, subject to felony penalties for false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016, that he is the named registered voter he claims to be. A voter who requires assistance in voting by reason of a physical disability or an inability to read or write, and who requests assistance pursuant to § 24.2-649, may be assisted in preparation of this statement in accordance with that section. The provisions of § 24.2-649 regarding voters who are unable to sign shall be followed when assisting a voter in completing this statement. A voter who does not show one of the forms of identification specified in this subsection and does not sign this statement shall be offered a provisional ballot under the provisions of § 24.2-653. The State Board of Elections shall provide an ID-ONLY provisional ballot envelope that requires no follow-up action by the registrar or electoral board other than matching submitted identification documents from the voter for the electoral board to make a determination on whether to count the ballot.

If the voter presents one of the forms of identification listed above, if his name is found on the pollbook in a form identical to or substantially similar to the name on the presented form of identification and the name provided by the voter, if he is qualified to vote in the election, and if no objection is made, an officer shall enter, opposite the voter's name on the pollbook, the first or next consecutive number from the voter count form provided by the State Board, or shall enter that the voter has voted if the pollbook is in electronic form; an officer shall provide the voter with the official ballot; and another officer shall admit him to the voting booth. Each voter whose name has been marked on the pollbooks as present to vote and entitled to a ballot shall remain in the presence of the officers of election in the polling place until he has voted. If a line of voters who have been marked on the pollbooks as present to vote forms to await entry to the voting booths, the line shall not be permitted to extend outside of the room containing the voting booths and shall remain under observation by the officers of election.

A voter may be accompanied into the voting booth by his child age 15 or younger.

C. If the current residence address provided by the voter is different from the address shown on the pollbook, the officer of election shall furnish the voter with a change of address form prescribed by the State Board. Upon its completion, the voter shall sign the prescribed form, subject to felony penalties for making false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016, which the officer of election shall then place in an envelope provided for such forms for transmission to the general registrar who shall then transfer or cancel the registration of such voter pursuant to Chapter 4 (§ 24.2-400 et seq.).

D. At the time the voter is asked his full name and current residence address, the officer of election shall ask any voter for whom the pollbook indicates that an identification number other than a social security number is recorded on the Virginia voter registration system if he presently has a social security number. If the voter is able to provide his social security number, he shall be furnished with a voter registration form prescribed by the State Board to update his registration information. Upon its completion, the form shall be placed by the officer of election in an envelope provided for such forms for transmission to the general registrar. Any social security numbers so provided shall be entered by the general registrar in the voter's record on the voter registration system.

E. This subsection shall apply in the case of any individual who is required by subparagraph (b) of 52 U.S.C. § 21083 of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 to show identification the first time he votes in a federal election in the state. At such election, such individual shall present (i) a current and valid photo identification or (ii) a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck, or other government document that shows the name and address of the voter. Such individual who desires to vote in person but does not show one of the forms of identification specified in this subsection shall be offered a provisional ballot under the provisions of § 24.2-653. The identification requirements of subsection B of this section and subsection A of § 24.2-653 shall not apply to such voter at such election. The Department of Elections shall provide instructions to the electoral boards for the handling and counting of such provisional ballots pursuant to subsection B of § 24.2-653 and this section.

Code 1950, §§ 24-244, 24-245, 24-248, 24-252, 24-308; 1952, c. 581; 1962, c. 536; 1964, c. 593; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-125, 24.1-126, 24.1-129, 24.1-218; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 247; 1973, c. 30; 1975, c. 515; 1978, c. 778; 1981, c. 425; 1982, c. 650, § 24.1-126.1; 1984, c. 234; 1985, cc. 197, 458; 1987, c. 349; 1993, c. 641; 1995, c. 716; 1996, cc. 72, 73; 1999, c. 725; 2000, cc. 366, 451; 2003, c. 1015; 2004, c. 410; 2005, cc. 496, 539; 2011, cc. 427, 458; 2012, cc. 723, 838, 839; 2013, cc. 725, 746; 2015, cc. 134, 571; 2016, c. 399; 2020, cc. 296, 1064, 1065, 1154, 1227, 1246.

§ 24.2-643. (Effective January 1, 2022) Qualified voter permitted to vote; procedures at polling place; voter identification.

A. After the polls are open, each qualified voter at a precinct shall be permitted to vote. The officers of election shall ascertain that a person offering to vote is a qualified voter before admitting him to the voting booth and furnishing an official ballot to him.

B. An officer of election shall ask the voter for his full name and current residence address and the voter may give such information orally or in writing. The officer of election shall verify with the voter his full name and address and shall repeat, in a voice audible to party and candidate representatives present, the full name provided by the voter. The officer shall ask the voter to present any one of the following forms of identification: (i) his voter confirmation documents; (ii) his valid Virginia driver's license, his valid United States passport, or any other identification issued by the Commonwealth, one of its political subdivisions, or the United States, other than a driver privilege card issued under § 46.2-328.3 or an identification privilege card issued under § 46.2-345.3; (iii) any valid student identification card issued by any institution of higher education located in the Commonwealth or any private school located in the Commonwealth; (iv) any valid student identification card containing a photograph of the voter and issued by any institution of higher education located in any other state or territory of the United States; (v) any valid employee identification card containing a photograph of the voter and issued by an employer of the voter in the ordinary course of the employer's business; or (vi) a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck, or other government document containing the name and address of the voter. The expiration date on a Virginia driver's license shall not be considered when determining the validity of the driver's license offered for purposes of this section.

Except as provided in subsection E, any voter who does not show one of the forms of identification specified in this subsection shall be allowed to vote after signing a statement, subject to felony penalties for false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016, that he is the named registered voter he claims to be. A voter who requires assistance in voting by reason of a physical disability or an inability to read or write, and who requests assistance pursuant to § 24.2-649, may be assisted in preparation of this statement in accordance with that section. The provisions of § 24.2-649 regarding voters who are unable to sign shall be followed when assisting a voter in completing this statement. A voter who does not show one of the forms of identification specified in this subsection and does not sign this statement shall be offered a provisional ballot under the provisions of § 24.2-653. The State Board of Elections shall provide an ID-ONLY provisional ballot envelope that requires no follow-up action by the registrar or electoral board other than matching submitted identification documents from the voter for the electoral board to make a determination on whether to count the ballot.

If the voter presents one of the forms of identification listed above, if his name is found on the pollbook in a form identical to or substantially similar to the name on the presented form of identification and the name provided by the voter, if he is qualified to vote in the election, and if no objection is made, an officer shall enter, opposite the voter's name on the pollbook, the first or next consecutive number from the voter count form provided by the State Board, or shall enter that the voter has voted if the pollbook is in electronic form; an officer shall provide the voter with the official ballot; and another officer shall admit him to the voting booth. Each voter whose name has been marked on the pollbooks as present to vote and entitled to a ballot shall remain in the presence of the officers of election in the polling place until he has voted. If a line of voters who have been marked on the pollbooks as present to vote forms to await entry to the voting booths, the line shall not be permitted to extend outside of the room containing the voting booths and shall remain under observation by the officers of election.

A voter may be accompanied into the voting booth by his child age 15 or younger.

C. If the current residence address provided by the voter is different from the address shown on the pollbook, the officer of election shall furnish the voter with a change of address form prescribed by the State Board. Upon its completion, the voter shall sign the prescribed form, subject to felony penalties for making false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016, which the officer of election shall then place in an envelope provided for such forms for transmission to the general registrar who shall then transfer or cancel the registration of such voter pursuant to Chapter 4 (§ 24.2-400 et seq.).

D. At the time the voter is asked his full name and current residence address, the officer of election shall ask any voter for whom the pollbook indicates that an identification number other than a social security number is recorded on the Virginia voter registration system if he presently has a social security number. If the voter is able to provide his social security number, he shall be furnished with a voter registration form prescribed by the State Board to update his registration information. Upon its completion, the form shall be placed by the officer of election in an envelope provided for such forms for transmission to the general registrar. Any social security numbers so provided shall be entered by the general registrar in the voter's record on the voter registration system.

E. This subsection shall apply in the case of any individual who is required by subparagraph (b) of 52 U.S.C. § 21083 of the Help America Vote Act of 2002 to show identification the first time he votes in a federal election in the state. At such election, such individual shall present (i) a current and valid photo identification or (ii) a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck, or other government document that shows the name and address of the voter. Such individual who desires to vote in person but does not show one of the forms of identification specified in this subsection shall be offered a provisional ballot under the provisions of § 24.2-653. The identification requirements of subsection B of this section and subsection A of § 24.2-653 shall not apply to such voter at such election. The Department of Elections shall provide instructions to the electoral boards for the handling and counting of such provisional ballots pursuant to subsection B of § 24.2-653 and this section.

Code 1950, §§ 24-244, 24-245, 24-248, 24-252, 24-308; 1952, c. 581; 1962, c. 536; 1964, c. 593; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-125, 24.1-126, 24.1-129, 24.1-218; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 247; 1973, c. 30; 1975, c. 515; 1978, c. 778; 1981, c. 425; 1982, c. 650, § 24.1-126.1; 1984, c. 234; 1985, cc. 197, 458; 1987, c. 349; 1993, c. 641; 1995, c. 716; 1996, cc. 72, 73; 1999, c. 725; 2000, cc. 366, 451; 2003, c. 1015; 2004, c. 410; 2005, cc. 496, 539; 2011, cc. 427, 458; 2012, cc. 723, 838, 839; 2013, cc. 725, 746; 2015, cc. 134, 571; 2016, c. 399; 2020, cc. 296, 1064, 1065, 1154, 1227, 1246; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 544.

§ 24.2-644. Voting by paper ballot; voting for presidential electors; write-in votes.

A. The qualified voter shall take the official paper ballot and enter the voting booth. After entering the voting booth, the qualified voter shall mark the ballot in accordance with the instructions for the type of ballot, for each candidate for whom he wishes to vote, leaving unmarked the name of each candidate for whom he does not wish to vote. Any ballot marked so that the intent of the voter is clear shall be counted.

B. The qualified voter at a presidential election shall mark the ballot in accordance with the instructions for the type of ballot, for his choice of candidates for President and Vice President. His ballot so marked shall be counted as if he had marked the ballot in accordance with the instructions for the type of ballot preceding the names of the individual electors affiliated with his choice for President and Vice President. The qualified voter at a presidential election may cast a write-in vote for President and Vice President as provided in subsections C and D.

C. At all elections except primary elections it is lawful for any voter to vote for any person other than the listed candidates for the office by writing or hand printing the person's name on the official ballot. No check or other mark shall be required to cast a valid write-in vote. Write-in votes for President and Vice President shall be counted only for candidates who have filed a joint declaration of intent to be write-in candidates for the offices with the Commissioner of Elections not less than 10 days before the date of the presidential election. The declaration of intent shall be on a form prescribed by the State Board and shall include a list of presidential electors pledged to those candidates which equals the whole number of senators and representatives to which the Commonwealth at that time is entitled in the Congress of the United States. A write-in vote cast for candidates for President and Vice President, or for a candidate for President only, shall be counted for the individual electors listed on the declaration of intent as pledged to those candidates.

D. No write-in vote shall be counted unless the name is entered on the ballot in conformance with this section. No write-in vote shall be counted when it is apparent to the officers of election that a voter has voted for the same person for the same office more than one time. No write-in vote shall be counted for an office for any person whose name appears on the ballot as a candidate for that office. If two or more persons are to be elected to the same office, a voter may vote for one or more persons whose names do appear on the ballot and one or more persons whose names do not appear on the ballot, provided that the total number of votes cast by him for that office does not exceed the number of persons to be elected to that office.

Code 1950, §§ 24-245, 24-252, 24-290.5, 24-307; 1952, c. 581; 1962, cc. 260, 536; 1964, c. 593; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-129, 24.1-161, 24.1-217; 1973, c. 30; 1975, c. 515; 1984, c. 234; 1985, cc. 197, 458; 1987, c. 349; 1990, c. 214; 1993, c. 641; 1997, c. 100; 2013, c. 542; 2018, c. 464.

§ 24.2-645. Defaced printed ballots.

If any printed ballot is unintentionally or accidentally defaced and rendered unfit for voting, the voter may deliver the defaced ballot to the officer of election and receive another. The returned ballot shall be marked spoiled by the officer of election and placed in the spoiled ballot envelope.

Code 1950, § 24-238; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-130; 1987, c. 349; 1993, c. 641; 2014, cc. 540, 576.

§ 24.2-646. Voter folds paper ballot and hands same to officer who deposits it unopened in ballot container.

The qualified voter shall fold each paper ballot with the names of the candidates and questions on the inside and hand the folded ballot to the appropriate officer of election. The officer shall place the ballot in the ballot container without any inspection except to assure himself that only a single ballot has been tendered and that the ballot is a genuine ballot. Without looking at the printed inside of the ballot, the officer may inspect the official seal on the back of the ballot to determine if it is genuine.

Code 1950, § 24-247; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-131; 1993, c. 641; 2003, c. 1015; 2014, cc. 540, 576.

§ 24.2-646.1. Permitted use of paper ballots.

The official paper ballot shall be used by a voter to cast his vote only in one of the following circumstances:

1. The official paper ballot is the only ballot in use in the precinct.

2. The official paper ballot is used by voters voting outside of the polling place pursuant to § 24.2-649.1.

3. The voter is casting a provisional ballot.

4. The voter is provided an official paper ballot or copy thereof pursuant to § 24.2-642 when voting equipment is inoperable or otherwise unavailable.

5. The official absentee paper ballot voted in accordance with (§ 24.2-700 et seq.).

6. The voter is provided an official paper ballot for a presidential election pursuant to § 24.2-402 or for federal elections pursuant to § 24.2-453.

2006, c. 492; 2015, c. 313; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 163.

§ 24.2-647. Voting systems; demonstration on election day.

The general registrar shall provide at each polling place on election day, for the voting system in use, a model of or materials displaying a portion of its ballot face. The model or materials shall be located on the table of one of the officers or in some other place accessible to the voters. An officer of election shall instruct any voter who requests instruction before voting on the proper manner of voting. The officer may direct the voter's attention to sample ballots so that the voter may become familiar with the location of questions and names of offices and candidates.

For ballot scanner machines, an officer of election, using a demonstration ballot and machine, shall show each voter who requests, immediately on entry to the polling place, the manner in which the ballot is to be voted.

If any voter, after entering the voting booth, asks for further instructions concerning the manner of voting, two of the officers from different political parties shall give such instructions to him, but no officer shall in any manner request or seek to persuade or induce any such voter to vote for or against any particular ticket, candidate, or question. After giving such instructions and before the voter votes, the officers shall leave the voting booth, and the voter shall cast his ballot in secret.

Code 1950, § 24-309; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-219; 1980, c. 639; 1985, c. 458; 1993, c. 641; 2014, cc. 540, 576; 2016, cc. 18, 492.

§ 24.2-648. Write-in votes on voting equipment.

Write-in votes may be cast on voting equipment for any person whose name does not appear on the ballot as a candidate for the office being voted, subject to this section and the provisions of § 24.2-644 not in conflict with this section.

Each write-in vote shall be entered in the receptacle or area designated on the machine for the office being elected. A write-in vote shall be cast in its appropriate place, in accordance with the instructions for that equipment, or it shall be void and not counted.

Except on machines that provide a means to enter a name electronically, each write-in vote shall be entered by the voter in his own handwriting or hand printing.

Code 1950, § 24-307; 1962, c. 260; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-217; 1975, c. 515; 1985, c. 458; 1990, c. 214; 1993, c. 641; 1996, c. 5; 2014, cc. 540, 576.

§ 24.2-649. Assistance for certain voters inside the polling place; penalties.

A. Any qualified voter who requires assistance to vote by reason of physical disability or inability to read or write may, if he so requests, be assisted in voting. If he is blind, he may designate an officer of election or any other person to assist him. If he is unable to read and write or disabled for any cause other than blindness, he may designate an officer of election or some other person to assist him other than the voter's employer or agent of that employer, or officer or agent of the voter's union.

The officer of election or other person so designated shall not enter the booth with the voter unless (i) the voter signs a request stating that he requires assistance by reason of physical disability or inability to read or write and (ii) the officer of election or other person signs a statement that he is not the voter's employer or an agent of that employer, or an officer or agent of the voter's union, and that he will act in accordance with the requirements of this section. The request and statement shall be on a single form furnished by the State Board. If the voter is unable to sign the request, his own mark acknowledged by him before an officer of election shall be sufficient signature, provided no mark shall be required of a voter who is blind. An officer of election shall advise the voter and person assisting the voter of the requirements of this section and record the name of the voter and the name and address of the person assisting him.

The officer of election or other person so designated shall assist the qualified voter in the preparation of his ballot in accordance with his instructions and without soliciting his vote or in any manner attempting to influence his vote and shall not in any manner divulge or indicate, by signs or otherwise, how the voter voted on any office or question. If a printed ballot is used, the officer or other person so designated shall deposit the ballot in the ballot container in accordance with § 24.2-646 or in the ballot scanner machine in accordance with the instructions of the State Board.

B. If the voter requires assistance in a language other than English and has not designated a person to assist him, an officer of election may assist as an interpreter, but shall first inquire of the representatives authorized to be present pursuant to § 24.2-604.4 whether they have a volunteer available who can interpret for the voter. One representative interpreter for each party or candidate, insofar as available, shall be permitted to observe the officer of election communicate with the voter. In any locality designated as a covered locality pursuant to § 24.2-128, the local electoral board shall ensure that interpretation services in the language of the applicable minority group are available and easily accessible to voters needing assistance pursuant to this subsection. The voter may designate one of the volunteer party or candidate interpreters to provide assistance. A person so designated by the voter shall meet all the requirements of this section for a person providing assistance.

C. A person who willfully violates subsection A or B is guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor. In addition, the provisions of § 24.2-1016 and its felony penalties for false statements shall be applicable to any request or statement signed pursuant to this section, and the provisions of §§ 24.2-704 and 24.2-1012 and the felony penalties for violations of the law related to providing assistance to absentee voters shall be applicable in such cases.

D. In any precinct in which an electronic voting machine is available that provides an audio ballot, the officers of election shall notify a voter requiring assistance pursuant to this section that such machine is available for him to use to vote in privacy without assistance and the officers of election shall instruct the voter on the use of the voting machine. Nothing in this section shall be construed to require a voter to use the machine unassisted.

Code 1950, §§ 24-245, 24-251, 24-252, 24-310; 1950, c. 230; 1952, c. 581; 1962, c. 536; 1964, c. 593; 1969, Ex. Sess., c. 5; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-129, 24.1-132, 24.1-220; 1973, c. 30; 1975, c. 515; 1978, c. 778; 1984, cc. 234, 775; 1985, cc. 197, 458; 1986, c. 558; 1987, c. 349; 1988, c. 598; 1993, c. 641; 2003, c. 1015; 2004, cc. 993, 1010; 2005, c. 569; 2006, c. 242; 2009, c. 809; 2014, cc. 540, 576; 2020, c. 561; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 163, 528, 533.

§ 24.2-649.1. Assistance for certain voters outside of the polling place.

A. Any voter with a disability or who is age 65 or older shall be entitled to vote outside of the polling place in accordance with the provisions of this section. However, during a declared state of emergency related to a communicable disease of public health threat, any voter, regardless of age or disability, shall be entitled to vote outside of the polling place in accordance with the provisions of this section. For purposes of this section, a disability shall include a permanent physical disability, a temporary physical disability, or an injury.

B. The area designated for voting outside of the polling place shall be within 150 feet of the entrance to the polling place. This area shall be clearly marked, and instructions on how to notify an officer of election of the voter's request to vote outside of the polling place shall be prominently displayed. The Department shall prescribe the form and content of such instructions, but in no case shall the voter be required to enter the polling place to provide such notice.

C. A voter eligible pursuant to subsection A shall be handed a printed ballot by an officer of election. He shall mark the ballot in the officer's presence but in a secret manner and, obscuring his vote, shall return the ballot to the officer. The officer shall immediately return to the polling place and shall deposit a paper ballot in the ballot container in accordance with § 24.2-646 or a machine-readable ballot in the ballot scanner machine in accordance with the instructions of the State Board.

D. Any county or city that has acquired an electronic voting machine that is so constructed as to be easily portable may use the voting machine in lieu of a printed ballot for voting outside of the polling place, so long as: (i) the voting machine remains in the plain view of two officers of election representing two political parties, or in a primary election, two officers of election representing the party conducting the primary, provided that if the use of two officers for this purpose would result in too few officers remaining in the polling place to meet legal requirements, the voting machine shall remain in plain view of one officer who shall be either the chief officer or the assistant chief officer and (ii) the voter casts his ballot in a secret manner unless the voter requests assistance pursuant to § 24.2-649.

After the voter has completed voting his ballot, the officer or officers shall immediately return the voting machine to its assigned location inside the polling place, and shall record (a) the machine number, (b) the time that the machine was removed and the time that it was returned, (c) the number on the machine's public counter before the machine was removed and the number on the same counter when it was returned, and (d) the name or names of the officer or officers who accompanied the machine on the statement of results. The names of the voters who used the machine while it was removed shall also be recorded provided that secrecy of the ballot is maintained in accordance with guidance from the State Board. If a polling place fails to record the information required in clause (a), (b), (c), or (d), or it is later proven that the information recorded was intentionally falsified, the local electoral board or general registrar shall dismiss at a minimum the chief officer or the assistant chief officer, or both, as appropriate, and shall dismiss any other officer of election who is shown to have caused the failure to record the required information intentionally or by gross negligence or to have intentionally falsified the information. The dismissed officers shall not be allowed thereafter to serve as an officer or other election official anywhere in the Commonwealth.

2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 163.

§ 24.2-650. Officers to sign only official papers, etc.

No officer of election shall sign or otherwise mark any paper, form, or item, other than one furnished by the State Board, his electoral board, or general registrar, at his polling place during the hours that the polls are open.

1976, c. 616, § 24.1-132.1; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-651. Voter who is challenged; how challenge tried.

Any qualified voter may, and the officers of election shall, challenge the vote of any person who is listed on the pollbook but is known or suspected not to be a qualified voter.

The individual making the challenge shall complete and sign the following statement on a form provided by the State Board:

"I do hereby state, subject to penalties for hindering, intimidating, or interfering with a qualified voter pursuant to § 24.2-607, that I am a qualified voter of this Commonwealth or an officer of election and that, to the best of my knowledge, information, and belief, _______________ is not a qualified voter of this precinct by reason of (please check each of the following reasons that is applicable):

1. The named person is not a citizen of the United States;

2. The named person is not now 18 years of age or, in the case of a primary election or a special election held on a date other that a general election date, will not reach the age of 18 before the next general election;

3. The named person is not a resident of the Commonwealth (or, if he has not been a resident of the Commonwealth within the preceding 30 days, he is attempting to vote for an office or issue other than electors of President and Vice President of the United States);

4. The named person is not a resident of this precinct (or he has not been a resident of this precinct since the second preceding general federal election and has not continued to be a resident of this county or city and this congressional district);

5. The named person is not a resident of the town in the case of a town election;

6. The named person has been disqualified from voting by the Constitution and laws of the Commonwealth and this disqualification has not been removed by proper authority;

7. The named person is not the identical person he represents himself to be; or

8. The named person has voted in this election at this or another voting place (state when and where the named person previously voted in this election: _______________)."

Upon receipt of a signed challenge from a qualified voter or officer of election, an officer of election shall explain to the challenged voter the qualifications of a voter and may examine him concerning his qualifications.

The officers of election are hereby authorized to administer the necessary oath or affirmation to any witness brought before them to testify as to the qualifications of any person offering to vote.

If the person being challenged insists that he is qualified and the challenge is not withdrawn, one of the officers shall give him a form containing the following statement:

"I do hereby state, subject to felony penalties for making false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016, that I am a citizen of the United States, that I am at least 18 years of age (or will be on the __________ day of __________, _____) that I am a resident of the Commonwealth of Virginia (or that I have been a resident of this Commonwealth within the preceding 30 days and am voting only for electors of President and Vice President of the United States), and that, according to the best of my knowledge, information and belief, I am not disqualified from voting by the Constitution and laws of this Commonwealth; that my full name is _______________; that in such name I was duly registered as a voter of this precinct; that I am now or at some time since the last November general election have been an actual resident of this precinct or that I have been an actual resident of this precinct at some time since the second preceding general federal election and have been and continue to be a resident of this county or city and this congressional district; if I am voting in a town election today, that I am currently a resident of that town; that I am the identical person I represent myself to be; and that I have not voted in this election at this or any voting place and will not vote in this election at any other voting place."

If the person challenged refuses to sign the statement, he shall not be permitted to vote. If, however, he signs the statement, he shall be permitted to vote on the voting system in use at the precinct, unless he is required to cast a provisional ballot pursuant to § 24.2-651.1.

When the voter has signed the statement and is permitted to vote, the officers of election shall mark his name on the pollbook with the first or next consecutive number from the voter count form, or shall enter that the voter has voted if the pollbook is in electronic form, and shall indicate on the pollbook that he has signed the required statement in accordance with the instructions of the State Board.

If the envelope containing a voted absentee ballot has been properly signed by the voter, such ballot shall not be subject to challenge pursuant to this section.

Code 1950, §§ 24-253, 24-254, 24-325; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-133; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 265; 1972, c. 620; 1977, c. 490; 1978, c. 778; 1980, c. 639; 1981, c. 425; 1983, c. 461; 1993, c. 641; 1997, c. 346; 2003, c. 1015; 2007, c. 375; 2012, cc. 838, 839.

§ 24.2-651.1. Voter who is shown as having already voted; provisional ballots.

Any person who offers to vote, who is listed on the pollbook, and whose name is marked to indicate that he has already voted in person in the election shall cast a provisional ballot pursuant to § 24.2-653. The State Board of Elections shall provide instructions to the electoral boards for the handling and counting of such provisional ballots.

1997, c. 915; 2000, cc. 366, 451; 2003, c. 1015; 2012, cc. 723, 838, 839; 2020, c. 735.

§ 24.2-652. Voter whose name erroneously omitted from pollbook; provisional ballots.

A. When a person offers to vote and his name does not appear on the pollbook, the officers of election shall permit him to vote only if all of the following conditions are met:

1. An officer of election is informed by the general registrar that the voter is registered to vote, that his registration has not been cancelled, and that his name is erroneously omitted from the pollbook.

2. The voter signs a statement, subject to felony penalties for false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016, that he is a qualified and registered voter of that precinct, a resident of that precinct, and his registration is not subject to cancellation pursuant to §§ 24.2-430, 24.2-431, and 24.2-432; and he provides, subject to such penalties, all the information required to identify himself including the last four digits of his social security number, if any, full name including the maiden or any other prior legal name, birthdate, and complete address.

3. The officer of election enters the identifying information for the voter on the pollbook.

When the voter has signed the statement and is permitted to vote, the officers of election shall mark his name on the pollbook with the next consecutive number from the voter count form, or shall enter that the voter has voted if the pollbook is in electronic form, and shall indicate on the pollbook that he has signed the required statement in accordance with the instructions of the State Board.

B. If the general registrar is not available or cannot state that the person is registered to vote, such person shall be allowed to vote by provisional ballot pursuant to § 24.2-653. The officers of election shall provide to him an application for registration. The State Board of Elections shall provide instructions to the electoral boards for the handling and counting of such provisional ballots.

Code 1950, § 24-95; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-55; 1974, c. 428; 1975, c. 515; 1981, c. 425; 1984, c. 480; 1993, c. 641; 2003, c. 1015; 2011, c. 602; 2020, c. 735.

§ 24.2-653. Provisional voting; procedures in polling place.

A. Any person voting provisionally pursuant to subsection B of § 24.2-643, § 24.2-651.1, subsection B of § 24.2-652, or § 24.2-653.1 or 24.2-653.2 shall be given a printed ballot and provide, subject to the penalties for making false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016, on a green envelope supplied by the Department of Elections, the identifying information required on the envelope, including the last four digits of his social security number, if any, full name including the maiden or any other prior legal name, date of birth, complete address, and signature. Such person shall be asked to present one of the forms of identification specified in subsection B of § 24.2-643. If he is unable to present one of these forms of identification, he shall sign a statement, subject to felony penalties for false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016, that he is the named registered voter he claims to be. The officers of election shall note on the green envelope whether or not the voter has presented one of the specified forms of identification or signed the required statement in lieu of presenting one of the specified forms of identification. The officers of election shall enter the appropriate information for the person in the precinct provisional ballots log in accordance with the instructions of the State Board but shall not enter a consecutive number for the voter on the pollbook nor otherwise mark his name as having voted.

The voter shall then, in the presence of an officer of election, but in a secret manner, mark the printed ballot as provided in § 24.2-644 and seal it in the green envelope. The envelope containing the ballot shall then promptly be placed in the ballot container by an officer of election.

B. An officer of election, by a written notice given to the voter, shall inform him that a determination of his right to vote shall be made by the electoral board and advise the voter of the beginning time and place for the board's meeting and of the voter's right to be present at that meeting. If the voter is voting provisionally as required by § 24.2-643, an officer of election, by written notice given to the voter, shall also inform him that he may submit a copy of one of the forms of identification specified in subsection B of § 24.2-643 or a statement, signed by him subject to felony penalties for false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016, that he is the named registered voter he claims to be to the electoral board by facsimile, electronic mail, in-person submission, or timely United States Postal Service or commercial mail delivery, to be received by the electoral board no later than noon on the third day after the election.

C. The provisional votes submitted pursuant to subsection A, in their unopened envelopes, shall be sealed in a special envelope marked "Provisional Votes," inscribed with the number of envelopes contained therein, and signed by the officers of election who counted them. All provisional votes envelopes shall be delivered either (i) to the clerk of the circuit court who shall deliver all such envelopes to the secretary of the electoral board or (ii) to the general registrar in localities in which the electoral board has directed delivery of election materials to the general registrar pursuant to § 24.2-668.

1975, c. 515, §§ 24.1-55.1, 24.1-55.2; 1982, c. 650; 1993, c. 641; 1996, c. 8; 1997, cc. 438, 456; 2002, c. 24; 2003, cc. 984, 1015; 2004, c. 410; 2005, c. 824; 2007, c. 692; 2008, cc. 110, 559; 2010, c. 448; 2012, cc. 592, 838, 839; 2013, c. 503; 2014, cc. 486, 540, 576; 2015, cc. 133, 712; 2020, cc. 735, 1064, 1065.

§ 24.2-653.01. Provisional ballots; electoral boards to make determination as to validity.

A. The electoral board shall meet on the day following the election and determine whether each person having submitted a provisional vote pursuant to § 24.2-653 was entitled to do so as a qualified voter in the precinct in which he offered the provisional vote. In the case of persons voting provisionally pursuant to § 24.2-653.3, the electoral board shall determine of which district the person is a qualified voter. At the meeting, the voter may request an extension of the determination of the provisional vote in order to provide information to prove that the voter is entitled to vote in the precinct pursuant to § 24.2-401. The electoral board shall have the authority to grant such extensions that it deems reasonable to determine the status of a provisional vote.

If the board is unable to determine the validity of all the provisional ballots offered in the election, or has granted any voter who has offered a provisional ballot an extension, the meeting shall stand adjourned, not to exceed seven calendar days from the date of the election, until the board has determined the validity of all provisional ballots offered in the election.

B. The electoral board shall permit one authorized representative of each political party or independent candidate in a general or special election or one authorized representative of each candidate in a primary election to remain in the room in which the determination is being made as an observer so long as he does not participate in the proceedings and does not impede the orderly conduct of the determination. Each authorized representative shall be a qualified voter of any jurisdiction of the Commonwealth. Each representative, who is not himself a candidate or party chairman, shall present to the electoral board a written statement designating him to be a representative of the party or candidate and signed by the county or city chairman of his political party, the independent candidate, or the primary candidate, as appropriate. If the county or city chairman is unavailable to sign such a written designation, such a designation may be made by the state or district chairman of the political party. However, no written designation made by a state or district chairman shall take precedence over a written designation made by the county or city chairman. Such statement, bearing the chairman's or candidate's original signature, may be photocopied and such photocopy shall be as valid as if the copy had been signed.

Notwithstanding the provisions of the Virginia Freedom of Information Act (§ 2.2-3700 et seq.), attendance at meetings of the electoral board to determine the validity of provisional ballots shall be permitted only for the authorized representatives provided for in this subsection, for the persons whose provisional votes are being considered and their representative or legal counsel, and for appropriate staff and legal counsel for the electoral board.

C. If the electoral board determines that such person was not entitled to vote as a qualified voter in the precinct or district in which he offered the provisional vote, is unable to determine his right to vote, or has not been provided one of the forms of identification specified in subsection B of § 24.2-643, or the signed statement that the voter is the named registered voter he claims to be, the envelope containing his ballot shall not be opened and his vote shall not be counted. The general registrar shall notify in writing pursuant to § 24.2-114 those persons found not properly registered or whose provisional vote was not counted.

The provisional vote shall be counted if (i) such person is entitled to vote in the precinct pursuant to § 24.2-401 or (ii) the Department of Elections or the voter presents proof that indicates the voter submitted an application for registration to a state-designated voter registration agency or the voter's information was transmitted by the Department of Motor Vehicles to the Department of Elections pursuant to § 24.2-411.3 prior to the close of registration pursuant to § 24.2-416 and the registrar determines that the person was qualified for registration based upon the application for registration submitted by the person pursuant to subsection B of § 24.2-652.

If the electoral board determines that such person was entitled to vote, the name of the voter shall be entered in a provisional votes pollbook and marked as having voted, the envelope shall be opened, and the ballot shall be placed in a ballot container without any inspection further than that provided for in § 24.2-646.

D. On completion of its determination, the electoral board shall proceed to count such ballots and certify the results of its count. Its certified results shall be added to those found pursuant to § 24.2-671. No adjustment shall be made to the statement of results for the precinct in which the person offered to vote. However, any voter who cast a provisional ballot and is determined by the electoral board to have been entitled to vote shall have his name included on the list of persons who voted that is submitted to the Department of Elections pursuant to § 24.2-406.

E. The certification of the results of the count together with all ballots and envelopes, whether open or unopened, and other related material shall be delivered by the electoral board to the clerk of the circuit court and retained by him as provided for in §§ 24.2-668 and 24.2-669.

2020, cc. 735, 908, 909, 920, 1064, 1065.

§ 24.2-653.1. Voters who did not receive absentee ballots; provisional ballots.

Any person who offers to vote pursuant to § 24.2-643 at his proper polling place or at a central absentee voter precinct established by the governing body of the county or city where he is registered to vote, but whose name is shown on the pollbook as having applied for an absentee ballot, shall be entitled to cast a provisional ballot if, for any reason, he did not receive or has lost the absentee ballot or has chosen to not vote absentee. In such case, he shall be required to present to the officer of election a statement signed by him that he did not receive the ballot, has lost the ballot, or has not cast the ballot, subject to felony penalties for making false statements as pursuant to § 24.2-1016, before being given a printed ballot and permitted to vote the provisional ballot. The electoral board shall process the ballot in accordance with the provisions of § 24.2-653.01 and the instructions of the State Board.

2006, c. 283; 2010, c. 348; 2014, cc. 540, 576; 2020, c. 735; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 471.

§ 24.2-653.2. Ballots cast after normal close of polling hours due to court-ordered extension; provisional ballots.

Whenever the polling hours are extended by an order of a court of competent jurisdiction, any ballots marked after the normal polling hours by persons who were not already in line at the time the polls would have closed, notwithstanding the court order, shall be treated as provisional ballots under this section. The officers of election shall mark the green envelope for each such provisional ballot to indicate that it was cast after normal polling hours due to the court order, and when preparing the materials to deliver to the registrar or electoral board, shall separate these provisional ballots from any provisional ballots used for any other reason. The electoral board shall treat these provisional ballots as provided in § 24.2-653.01; however, the counted and uncounted provisional ballots marked after the normal polling hours shall be kept separate from all other ballots and recorded in a separate provisional ballots pollbook. The Department of Elections shall provide instructions to the electoral boards for the handling and counting of such provisional ballots pursuant to this section.

2020, c. 735.

§ 24.2-653.3. Voters assigned to split precinct; provisional ballots.

A. Any voter who is assigned to a precinct that is split between two or more election districts and believes he was given a ballot for the district of which he is not a qualified voter may request, prior to casting the ballot, and shall be permitted to cast a provisional ballot for the district of which he believes he is a qualified voter and for the district in which the pollbook indicates he is registered. The provisional ballots shall be cast in accordance with the provisions of § 24.2-653, except that the voter shall be given a printed ballot for the district of which he believes he is a qualified voter and for the district in which the pollbook indicates he is registered, and an envelope for each ballot, which shall be labeled with the corresponding district number. After marking each printed ballot, the voter shall seal each ballot in its corresponding envelope, and the ballot envelopes shall then be sealed in the green envelope provided for in § 24.2-653.

B. At the meeting of the electoral board to determine the validity of all provisional ballots offered in the election, the electoral board shall verify in which district a voter who voted provisionally pursuant to this section is a qualified voter, and the provisional ballot cast by the voter for that district shall be counted. The electoral board shall process the ballot in accordance with the provisions of § 24.2-653.01 and the instructions of the State Board.

2020, c. 920, § 24.2-653.2.

§ 24.2-654. Officers to lock and seal voting equipment and ascertain vote after polls closed; statement of results.

As soon as the polls are closed, the officers of election shall lock each voting and counting machine against further voting. They shall then proceed to ascertain the vote given at the election and continue without adjournment until they declare the results of the election. They shall seal the machines.

In ascertaining the vote, the officers of election shall complete a statement of results in duplicate on the form and in the manner prescribed by the State Board.

Code 1950, §§ 24-258, 24-259, 24-312; 1966, c. 453; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-136, 24.1-222; 1974, c. 428; 1979, c. 329; 1981, c. 425; 1983, c. 461; 1985, c. 458; 1993, c. 641; 2014, cc. 540, 576.

§ 24.2-655. Representatives of political parties and candidates to be present on request.

Before proceeding to ascertain the vote, the officers of election shall determine whether no more than two representatives of each political party having candidates in the election and one representative of each independent candidate or primary candidate request to be present while the absentee ballots are cast, votes are counted, and returns are completed.

Each representative shall be a qualified voter of any jurisdiction in the Commonwealth and shall present to the officers of election a written statement certifying that he is an authorized representative, signed by his party chairman for the jurisdiction in which the election is held, the independent candidate, or the candidate in a primary, as appropriate. If the party chairman for the jurisdiction in which the election is held is unavailable to sign such a written designation, such a designation may be made by the state or district chairman of the political party. However, no written designation made by a state or district chairman shall take precedence over a written designation made by the party chairman for the jurisdiction in which the election is held. Such representatives shall be entitled to be present while the votes are counted and shall remain until the returns are completed.

In case such representatives, or any of them, do not request to be present, the officers shall notify the bystanders, if any, and select one or more to be present with any available representatives of the parties or candidates so that there are as many as four bystanders and representatives present.

The representatives and bystanders lawfully present shall have an unobstructed view of the officers of election and their actions while the absentee ballots are cast, votes are counted, and returns are completed. The representatives and bystanders lawfully present are prohibited from interfering with the officers of election in any way.

Code 1950, §§ 24-260, 24-261; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-137; 1974, c. 428; 1993, c. 641; 2006, c. 177; 2010, c. 448; 2015, c. 133.

§ 24.2-657. Determination of vote on voting systems.

In the presence of all persons who may be present lawfully at the time, giving full view of the voting systems or printed return sheets, the officers of election shall determine and announce the results as shown by the counters or printed return sheets, including the votes recorded for each office on the write-in ballots, and shall also announce the vote on every question. The vote as registered shall be entered on the statement of results. When completed, the statement shall be compared with the number on the counters on the equipment or on the printed return sheets. If, on any ballot scanner, the number of persons voting in the election, or the number of votes cast for any office or on any question, totals more than the number of names on the pollbooks of persons voting on the machines, then the figures recorded by the machines shall be accepted as correct. A statement to that effect shall be entered by the officers of election in the space provided on the statement of results.

Code 1950, § 24-312; 1966, c. 453; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-222; 1974, c. 428; 1979, c. 329; 1981, c. 425; 1983, c. 461; 1985, c. 458; 1993, c. 641; 2014, cc. 540, 576; 2016, c. 464.

§ 24.2-658. Machines with printed return sheets; disposition of sheets.

If machines that print returns are used, the printed inspection sheet and two copies of the printed return sheet containing the results of the election for each machine shall be inserted in the envelope containing the statement of results by the officers of election and sealed and returned as required by § 24.2-668.

The printed inspection sheets and one copy of the printed return sheets shall be kept with the statement of results and preserved as provided in § 24.2-669.

One copy of the printed return sheets shall be made available by the clerk of the circuit court on the day following the election and for 60 additional days for inspection and transcribing information therefrom by the public.

1981, c. 425, § 24.1-222.1; 1985, c. 458; 1993, c. 641; 2014, cc. 540, 576.

§ 24.2-659. Locking voting systems after election and delivering keys to clerk; printed returns as evidence.

A. If the voting system is secured by the use of equipment keys, after the officers of election lock and seal each machine, the equipment keys shall be enclosed in an envelope that shall be sealed and have endorsed thereon a certificate of an officer of election stating the election precinct, the number of each machine, the number on the seal, and the number of the protective counter, if one, on the machine. The sealed envelope shall be delivered by one of the officers of the election to the clerk of the circuit court where the election was held. The custodians of the voting equipment shall enclose and seal in an envelope, properly endorsed, all other keys to all voting equipment in their jurisdictions and deliver the envelope to the clerk of the circuit court by noon on the day following the election.

B. If the voting systems are secured by the use of equipment keys or electronic activation devices that are not specific to a particular machine, after the officers of election lock and seal each machine, the equipment keys and electronic activation devices shall be enclosed in an envelope that shall be sealed and have endorsed thereon a certificate of an officer of election stating the election precinct. The sealed envelope shall be delivered by one of the officers of election to the clerk of the circuit court where the election was held.

C. If the voting system is secured by removal of the data storage device used in that election, the officers shall remove the data storage device and proceed to lock and seal each machine. The data storage device shall be enclosed in an envelope that shall be sealed and have endorsed thereon a certificate of an officer of election stating the election precinct, the number of each machine, the number on the seal, and the number of the protective counter, if one, on the machine. The sealed envelope shall be delivered by one of the officers of election to the clerk of the circuit court where the election was held. The equipment keys used at the polls shall be sealed in a different envelope and delivered to the clerk who shall release them to the general registrar upon request or at the expiration of the time specified by subsection F.

D. If the voting system provides for the creation of a separate master electronic back-up on a data storage device that combines the data for all of the voting systems in a given precinct, that data storage device shall be enclosed in an envelope that shall be sealed and have endorsed thereon a certificate of an officer of election stating the name of the precinct. The sealed envelope shall be delivered by one of the officers of election to the clerk of the circuit court where the election was held. The data storage device for the individual machines may remain sealed in its individual machine until the expiration of the time specified by subsection F. The equipment keys and the electronic activation devices used at the polls shall be sealed together in a separate envelope and delivered to the clerk who shall release them to the general registrar upon request or at the expiration of the time specified by subsection F.

E. If the voting system is secured by removal of the data storage device used in that election, and the only record of votes cast for any office or on any question is saved on that data storage device and not on the machine itself, the officers shall remove the data storage device and proceed to lock and seal each machine. Each such machine shall remain locked and sealed until it is returned to the site at which voting systems are stored in the locality. The data storage device shall be enclosed in an envelope that shall be sealed and have endorsed thereon a certificate of an officer of election stating the election precinct, the number of each machine, the number on the seal, and the number of the protective counter, if one, on the machine. The sealed envelope shall be delivered by one of the officers of election to the clerk of the circuit court where the election was held. The equipment keys used at the polls shall be sealed in a different envelope and delivered to the general registrar no later than noon on the day after the election.

F. The voting systems described in subsections A, B, C, and D shall remain locked and sealed until the deadline to request a recount under Chapter 8 (§ 24.2-800 et seq.) has passed and, if any contest or recount is pending thereafter, until it has been concluded. Such machines and any envelope containing data storage devices shall be opened and all data examined only (i) on the order of a court of competent jurisdiction or (ii) on the request of an authorized representative of the State Board, or the electoral board or general registrar at the direction of the State Board, in order to ensure the accuracy of the returns. In the event that machines and data storage devices are examined under clause (ii), each political party and each independent candidate on the ballot, or each primary candidate, shall be entitled to have a representative present during such examination. The representatives and observers lawfully present shall be prohibited from interfering with the officers of election in any way. The State Board, local electoral board, or general registrar shall provide such parties and candidates reasonable advance notice of the examination.

When the required time has expired, the clerk of the circuit court shall return all voting equipment keys and data storage devices to the general registrar.

G. The local electoral board or general registrar may direct the officers of election and custodians that any sealed equipment keys or data storage devices that are otherwise required by the provisions of this section to be delivered to the clerk of the circuit court shall instead be delivered to the principal office of the general registrar no later than noon on the day following the election. The general registrar shall secure and retain the sealed equipment keys and any other electronic locking or activation devices in his office and shall convey them to the clerk of the court by noon on the day following the ascertainment of the results of the election by the electoral board.

H. The provisions of this section requiring the locking and sealing of voting systems shall not apply to any ballot marking device and its data storage device provided pursuant to § 24.2-626.1, where the number of persons voting in the election or the number of votes cast for any office or on any question are not recorded by the ballot marking device.

Code 1950, § 24-314; 1962, c. 230; 1966, c. 453; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-224; 1974, c. 428; 1978, c. 778; 1985, c. 458; 1993, c. 641; 1995, c. 197; 2003, c. 1015; 2004, cc. 835, 993, 1010; 2006, c. 689; 2008, cc. 107, 385; 2014, cc. 540, 576; 2016, cc. 18, 218, 464, 489, 492.

§ 24.2-661. Detection and setting aside of double ballots.

After the votes on all voting and counting equipment have been determined and recorded, the officers of election shall proceed to examine and count the paper ballots to ascertain if any double ballots have been cast, and whether the number of ballots corresponds with the number of names on the pollbooks of persons who voted on paper ballots. If two or more separate ballots are found so folded together as to represent the appearance of a single ballot they shall be laid aside until the count of the ballots is completed. If, upon a comparison of the count and the number of names of such qualified voters on the pollbooks, it appears that the two or more ballots thus folded together were cast by the same qualified voter, they shall be set aside and not counted.

Code 1950, §§ 24-262, 24-313; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-138, 24.1-223; 1983, c. 461; 1985, c. 458; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-662. Procedure when paper ballots exceed names on pollbooks.

If the ballots in the container exceed the number of names on the pollbooks of persons who voted on paper ballots, all ballots shall be replaced in the ballot container. Then, after the container is well shaken, an officer of election, being blindfolded, shall withdraw a sufficient number of ballots to reduce the number of ballots left in the container to the number of such names on the pollbooks. The drawn ballots shall be set aside and not counted.

Code 1950, § 24-263; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-139; 1983, c. 461; 1993, c. 641; 2003, c. 1015.

§ 24.2-663. When ballot void.

If a printed ballot is found to have been voted for a greater number of names for any one office than the number of persons required to fill the office, or if the title of the office is erased, the ballot shall be considered void as to all the names designated to fill such office, but no further, and the ballot shall be counted for the other offices on the ballot. In the case of a ballot scanner machine, an election official is authorized to cause the ballot scanner to receive the ballot and count it in accordance with this section. No ballot shall be void for having been voted for fewer names than authorized.

If any person votes, either in person or absentee, more than one time in an election, all ballots received from such person shall be void and, if possible, not counted. If one such ballot has already been cast, any additional ballots received from such person shall be void and not counted.

Code 1950, § 24-266; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-140; 1978, c. 778; 1993, c. 641; 2013, c. 469; 2014, cc. 540, 576.

§ 24.2-664. Reduction in number of ballots.

Whenever the number of ballots is reduced by fraudulent or void ballots below the number of names of qualified voters on the pollbooks who voted on paper ballots, the cause of such reduction shall be stated in the space provided on the statement of results.

Code 1950, § 24-624; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-141; 1981, c. 425; 1983, c. 461; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-665. How paper ballots counted.

A. When the number of paper ballots to be counted has been verified, the officers shall proceed to ascertain the number of votes cast by paper ballots for each person and for and against each question. The votes on all ballots for all offices and questions shall be counted. As soon as all ballots are counted, they shall be placed in an envelope or container labeled "counted ballots." No person other than the officers of the election shall handle the ballots.

B. Only an official ballot prepared as provided for in this title shall be counted. If any unofficial ballot is found among the official ballots, the unofficial ballot shall be put aside, not counted and appropriately noted on the statement of results.

Code 1950, §§ 24-246, 24-265; 1950, p. 165; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-142; 1981, c. 425; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-666. Procedures to account for paper ballots.

The State Board shall prescribe appropriate forms and procedures for use by the local electoral boards, general registrars, and officers of election to account for all paper ballots, used and unused.

1988, cc. 291, 318, § 24.1-143.1; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-667. Completion of statement of results.

At the conclusion of determining the votes cast on voting devices and paper ballots, the officers of election shall verify that all required data has been accurately entered, sign both copies of the statement of results, and affirm that the statement is complete and the information thereon is true and correct.

Code 1950, §§ 24-246, 24-265, 24-312; 1950, p. 165; 1966, c. 453; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-142, 24.1-222; 1974, c. 428; 1979, c. 329; 1981, c. 425; 1983, c. 461; 1985, c. 458; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-667.1. Reporting of results; absentee votes.

The general registrar shall report to the Department of Elections the number and results of absentee ballots cast early in person pursuant to § 24.2-701.1 separately from the number and results of all other absentee ballots.

2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 471.

§ 24.2-668. Pollbooks, statements of results, and ballots to be sealed and delivered to clerk or general registrar.

A. After ascertaining the results and before adjourning, the officers shall put the pollbooks, the duplicate statements of results, and any printed inspection and return sheets in the envelopes provided by the State Board. The officers shall seal the envelopes and direct them to the clerk of the circuit court for the county or city. The pollbooks, statements, and sheets thus sealed and directed, the sealed counted ballots envelope or container, and the unused, defaced, spoiled and set aside ballots properly accounted for, packaged and sealed, shall be conveyed by one of the officers to be determined by lot, if they cannot otherwise agree, to the clerk of court by noon on the day following the election.

The clerk shall retain custody of the pollbooks, printed ballots, and other elections materials until the time has expired for initiating a recount, contest, or other proceeding in which the pollbooks, printed ballots, and other elections materials may be needed as evidence and there is no proceeding pending. The clerk shall (i) secure all pollbooks, printed ballots and other election materials in sealed boxes; (ii) place all of the sealed boxes in a vault or room not open to the public or to anyone other than the clerk and his staff; (iii) cause such vault or room to be securely locked except when access is necessary for the clerk and his staff; and (iv) upon the initiation of a recount, certify that these security measures have been taken in whatever form is deemed appropriate by the chief judge.

After that time the clerk shall deliver the pollbooks to the general registrar who shall return the pollbooks or transfer a copy of the electronic data to the State Board as directed by § 24.2-114 for voting credit purposes. After the pollbooks are returned by the State Board, the general registrar shall retain the pollbooks in his principal office for two years from the date of the election. The clerk shall retain the statement of results and any printed inspection and return sheets for two years and may then destroy them.

B. The local electoral board or general registrar may direct that the officers of election, in lieu of conveying the materials to the clerk of the circuit court as provided in subsection A, shall convey the materials to the principal office of the general registrar on the night of the election or the morning following the election as the board directs. The general registrar shall secure and retain the materials in his office and shall convey to the clerk of the court, by noon of the day following the ascertainment of the results of the election by the electoral board, all of the election materials. The general registrar shall retain for public inspection one copy of the statement of results.

C. If an electronic pollbook is used, the data disc or cartridge containing the electronic records of the election, or, alternately, a printed copy of the pollbook records of those who voted, shall be transmitted, sealed and retained as required by this section, and otherwise treated as the pollbook for that election for all purposes subsequent to the election. Nothing in this title shall be construed to require that the equipment or software used to produce the electronic pollbook be sealed or retained along with the pollbook, provided that the records for the election have been transferred or printed according to the instructions of the State Board.

Code 1950, §§ 24-232, 24-267, 24-268, 24-270; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-143, 24.1-144; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 247; 1972, c. 620; 1973, c. 30; 1975, c. 515; 1978, c. 778; 1981, c. 425; 1992, c. 293; 1993, c. 641; 1995, c. 197; 1996, c. 8; 1997, cc. 438, 456; 2002, c. 190; 2003, c. 1015; 2004, cc. 410, 835; 2007, c. 285; 2016, cc. 18, 492; 2020, c. 294.

§ 24.2-669. Clerk to keep ballots; inspection; destruction.

The clerk to whom the counted and uncounted ballots are delivered shall, without breaking the seal, deposit them in a secure place in his office, where they shall be kept for the time required by this section. He shall not allow the ballots to be inspected except (i) by an authorized representative of the State Board or by the electoral board at the direction of the State Board to ensure the accuracy of the returns or the purity of the election, (ii) by the officers of election, and then only at the direction of the electoral board in accordance with § 24.2-672 when the provisions of § 24.2-662 have not been followed, (iii) on the order of a court before which there is pending a proceeding for a contest or recount under Chapter 8 (§ 24.2-800 et seq.) of this title or before whom there is then pending a proceeding in which the ballots are necessary for use in evidence, or (iv) for the purpose of conducting an audit as part of a post-election pilot program pursuant to § 24.2-671.1. In the event that ballots are inspected under clause (i), (ii), or (iv) of this paragraph, each political party and each independent candidate on the ballot, or each primary candidate, shall be entitled to have a representative present during such inspection. The representatives and observers lawfully present shall be prohibited from interfering with the officers of election in any way. The State Board or local electoral board shall provide such parties and candidates reasonable advance notice of the inspection.

After the counted ballots for a federal election have remained in the clerk's office for two years, if no election contest or other proceeding is pending in which such ballots may be needed as evidence, the clerk shall destroy such ballots. After the counted ballots for any other election have remained in the clerk's office for one year, if no election contest or other proceeding is pending in which such ballots may be needed as evidence, the clerk shall destroy such ballots. After the unused ballots have remained in the clerk's office and the time has expired for initiating a recount, contest, or other proceeding in which such ballots may be needed as evidence and no such contest or proceeding is pending, the clerk may then destroy the unused ballots other than punchcard ballots, which shall be returned to the electoral board.

Code 1950, §§ 24-268, 24-270; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-144; 1973, c. 30; 1975, c. 515; 1978, c. 778; 1981, c. 425; 1992, c. 293; 1993, c. 641; 1998, c. 270; 2003, c. 1015; 2006, c. 689; 2008, c. 565.

§ 24.2-670. Clerk to send for books and ballots if not delivered by officers.

If the officers of election fail to deliver the materials to the clerk of the circuit court, or to the principal office of the general registrar, as required by § 24.2-668 before the time for the electoral board to meet and open the returns, the clerk of the circuit court shall dispatch, to obtain such returns, a law-enforcement officer, who shall be subject to the same penalties and entitled to the same compensation as an officer of election for such service.

Code 1950, § 24-269; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-145; 1993, c. 641; 1995, c. 197.

§ 24.2-671. Electoral board to meet and ascertain results; conclusiveness of results.

Each electoral board shall meet at the clerk's or general registrar's office of the county or city for which they are appointed at or before 5:00 p.m. on the day after any election. The board may adjourn to another room of sufficient size in a public building to ascertain the results, and may adjourn as needed, not to exceed seven calendar days from the date of the election. Written directions to the location of any room other than the clerk's or general registrar's office where the board will meet shall be posted at the doors of the clerk's and general registrar's offices prior to the beginning of the meeting.

The board shall open the returns delivered by the officers.

If the electoral board has exercised the option provided by § 24.2-668 for delivery of the election materials to the office of the general registrar on the night of the election, the electoral board shall meet at the office of the general registrar at or before 5:00 p.m. on the day after any election.

The board shall ascertain from the returns the total votes in the county or city, or town in a town election, for each candidate and for and against each question and complete the abstract of votes cast at such election, as provided for in § 24.2-675. For any office in which no person was elected by write-in votes, and for which the total number of write-in votes for that office is less than (i) 10 percent of the total number of votes cast for that office and (ii) the total number of votes cast for the candidate receiving the most votes, the electoral board shall ascertain the total votes for each write-in candidate for the office within one week following the election. For offices for which the electoral board issues the certificate of election, the result so ascertained, signed and attested, shall be conclusive and shall not thereafter be subject to challenge except as specifically provided in Chapter 8 (§ 24.2-800 et seq.).

Once the result is so ascertained, the secretary of the electoral board shall deliver one copy of each statement of results to the general registrar to be available for inspection when his office is open for business. The secretary shall then return all pollbooks, any printed inspection and return sheets, and one copy of each statement of results to the clerk.

Beginning with the general election in November 2007, a report of any changes made by the local electoral board to the unofficial results ascertained by the officers of election or any subsequent change to the official abstract of votes made by the local electoral board shall be forwarded to the State Board of Elections and the explanation of such change shall be posted on the State Board website.

Each political party and each independent candidate on the ballot, or each primary candidate, shall be entitled to have representatives present when the local electoral board meets to ascertain the results of the election. Each such party and candidate shall be entitled to have at least as many representatives present as there are teams of officials working to ascertain the results, and the room in which the local electoral board meets shall be of sufficient size and configuration to allow the representatives reasonable access and proximity to view the ballots as the teams of officials work to ascertain the results. The representatives and observers lawfully present shall be prohibited from interfering with the officials in any way. It is unlawful for any person to knowingly possess any firearm as defined in § 18.2-308.2:2 within 40 feet of any building, or part thereof, used as a meeting place for the local electoral board while the electoral board meets to ascertain the results of an election, unless such person is (a) any law-enforcement officer or any retired law-enforcement officer qualified pursuant to subsection C of § 18.2-308.016; (b) occupying his own private property that falls within 40 feet of a polling place; or (c) an armed security officer, licensed pursuant to Article 4 (§ 9.1-138 et seq.) of Chapter 1 of Title 9.1, whose employment or performance of his duties occurs within 40 feet of any building, or part thereof, used as a meeting place for the local electoral board while the electoral board meets to ascertain the results of an election.

Code 1950, §§ 24-271, 24-272; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-146; 1973, c. 30; 1981, c. 425; 1991, c. 388; 1992, c. 329; 1993, c. 641; 1996, cc. 8, 223; 2003, c. 1015; 2005, c. 824; 2006, c. 689; 2014, c. 486; 2018, c. 536; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 459.

§ 24.2-671.1. Audits of ballot scanner machines.

A. The Department of Elections shall coordinate a post-election risk-limiting audit annually of ballot scanner machines in use in the Commonwealth. The localities selected for the audit shall be chosen at random with every locality participating in the Department's annual audit at least once during a five-year period. The purpose of the audits shall be to study the accuracy of ballot scanner machines.

B. No audit conducted pursuant to this section shall commence until after the election has been certified and the period to initiate a recount has expired without the initiation of a recount. An audit shall have no effect on the election results.

C. All audits conducted pursuant to this section shall be performed by the local electoral boards and general registrars in accordance with the procedures prescribed by the Department. The procedures established by the Department shall include its procedures for conducting hand counts of ballots. Candidates and political parties may have representatives observe the audits.

D. The local electoral boards shall report the results of the audit of the ballot scanner machines in their jurisdiction to the Department. At the conclusion of each audit, the Department shall submit a report to the State Board. The report shall include a comparison of the audited election results and the initial tally for each machine audited and an analysis of any detected discrepancies.

2008, c. 565; 2014, cc. 540, 576; 2017, c. 367.

§ 24.2-672. Electoral board to correct irregularities in returns of officers of election.

While ascertaining the results of an election, the electoral board may find that there are irregularities or informalities in the returns of the officers of election which can be cured by amending or correcting the returns. Then the board immediately shall summon, to appear before the board on the date of the summons or the next date thereafter, the officers of elections required to amend the returns so that the same may conform to the law. The summons may be executed by any person authorized by law to serve summonses for witnesses.

Code 1950, § 24-275; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-147; 1992, c. 329; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-673. Candidates having highest number of votes to receive certificate of election.

Except in the case of a recount pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 8 (§ 24.2-800 et seq.) of this title, in all elections for the choice of any officer, unless it is otherwise expressly provided, the person having the highest number of votes for any office shall be deemed to have been elected to such office and shall receive the certificate of election.

Code 1950, § 24-276; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-148; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-673.1. (Expires July 1, 2031) Ranked choice voting.

A. For purposes of this section:

"Ranked choice voting" means a method of casting and tabulating votes in which (i) voters rank candidates in order of preference, (ii) tabulation proceeds in rounds such that in each of round either a candidate or candidates are elected or the last-place candidate is defeated, (iii) votes for voters' next-ranked candidates are transferred from elected or defeated candidates, and (iv) tabulation ends when the number of candidates elected equals the number of offices to be filled. "Ranked choice voting" is known as "instant runoff voting" when electing a single office and "single transferable vote" when electing multiple offices.

"Ranking" means the ordinal number assigned on a ballot by a voter to a candidate to express the voter's preference for that candidate. Ranking number one is the highest ranking, ranking number two is the next-highest ranking, and so on, consecutively, up to the number of candidates indicated on the ballot.

B. Elections of members of a county board of supervisors or a city council may be conducted by ranked choice voting pursuant to this section. The decision to conduct an election by ranked choice voting shall be made, in consultation with the local electoral board and general registrar, by a majority vote of the board of supervisors or city council that the office being elected serves.

C. The State Board may promulgate regulations for the proper and efficient administration of elections determined by ranked choice voting, including (i) procedures for tabulating votes in rounds, (ii) procedures for determining winners in elections for offices to which only one candidate is being elected and to which more than one candidate is being elected, and (iii) standards for ballots pursuant to § 24.2-613, notwithstanding the provisions of subsection E of that section.

D. The State Board may administer or prescribe standards for a voter outreach and public information program for use by any locality conducting ranked choice voting pursuant to this section.

2020, c. 1054.

§ 24.2-674. Determination by lot in case of tie.

If, prior to a recount, two or more persons have an equal number of votes for any county, city, town, or district office, and a higher number than any other person, the electoral board shall proceed publicly to determine by lot which of the candidates shall be declared elected.

If, prior to a recount, any two or more persons have an equal number of votes and a higher number than any other person for member of the General Assembly or of the Congress of the United States, or if any two or more persons have an equal number of votes and a higher number than any other person for elector of President and Vice President of the United States, the State Board of Elections shall proceed publicly to determine by lot which of them shall be declared elected. Reasonable notice shall be given to such candidates of the time when such elections shall be so determined; and if they, or either of them, shall fail to appear in accordance with such notice, the Board shall proceed so as to determine the election in their absence.

Any person who loses the determination by lot may petition for a recount pursuant to Article 1 (§ 24.2-800 et seq.) of Chapter 8 of this title.

Code 1950, §§ 24-277, 24-290; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-149; 1993, c. 641; 2020, c. 500.

§ 24.2-675. Abstracts of votes to be made by secretary and forwarded to State Board and to clerks.

As soon as the electoral board determines the persons who have received the highest number of votes for any office, the secretary shall make out an abstract of the votes for each of the following: Governor; Lieutenant Governor; Attorney General; members of the Senate of Virginia; members of the House of Delegates; members of the United States Senate; members of the United States House of Representatives; electors of the President and Vice President of the United States; each county office; each city office; each district office; each town office; and such others as may be required for statewide referenda. The abstracts shall contain the names of all persons receiving any vote for each office and the total number of votes received by each person or for or against each question. However, if no person was elected by write-in votes and the total number of write-in votes for any office is less than (i) 10 percent of the total number of votes cast for that office and (ii) the total number of votes cast for the candidate receiving the most votes, the abstract shall contain only the total number of write-in votes and not the number of write-in votes for each person receiving write-in votes.

The abstracts shall be certified and signed by the electoral board, attested by the secretary, and retained by the electoral board as part of its records. A copy of each, certified under the official seal of the electoral board, shall immediately be mailed or delivered by hand to the State Board. The State Board shall require the electoral board of any county or city to correct any errors found on such abstracts prior to completing the requirements of § 24.2-679.

One certified copy of each abstract of votes shall be forwarded (i) to the clerk of the city council or board of supervisors and recorded in its record book, (ii) for town elections, to the clerk of the town council and recorded in its minute book, and (iii) for each local referendum, to the circuit court for the locality.

Code 1950, §§ 24-278 through 24-280; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-150; 1972, c. 620; 1975, c. 515; 1976, c. 616; 1981, c. 425; 1993, c. 641; 1996, c. 223; 2003, c. 1015; 2018, c. 536.

§ 24.2-676. Secretary to make out and deliver certificate of election.

Immediately after the electoral board has determined the election results, the secretary shall make out certificates of election for each county, city, town, or district office other than an office shared by more than one county or city, or any combination thereof. The secretary shall make out the certificate for each of the persons who has the highest number of votes for the office, who has sufficient votes to be elected to a multi-member office, or, in case of a tie, who has been decided by lot to be elected. The secretary, or another board member or registrar designated by the secretary, shall deliver in person or the secretary shall transmit by certified mail the certificate to the person elected, as soon as such person has complied with the provisions of § 24.2-948.2.

Code 1950, § 24-282; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-151; 1972, c. 620; 1975, c. 515; 1980, c. 639; 1983, c. 264; 1993, c. 641; 2006, cc. 787, 892.

§ 24.2-677. State Board to open and record returns; application of Freedom of Information Act.

The State Board, on receipt of the certified abstracts of the votes given in the several counties and cities, shall open the abstracts and record and carefully preserve them.

The provisions of Chapter 37 (§ 2.2-3700 et seq.) of Title 2.2, the Virginia Freedom of Information Act, shall not apply to the certified abstracts of the votes or any other documents used by the Board in ascertaining the results of any election until the results have been finally determined by the Board.

Code 1950, § 24-283; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-152; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 206; 1975, c. 515; 1980, c. 639; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-678. Law-enforcement officer to be sent for abstracts not forwarded.

If the State Board has not received the abstracts of votes from any county or city within seven days after any election, it shall dispatch a law-enforcement officer to obtain a copy of the abstract from the official having charge thereof. That official shall immediately, on demand of the officer, make out and deliver to him the copy required, and the officer shall deliver the abstract to the State Board without delay.

Code 1950, § 24-284; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-153; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-679. State Board to meet and make statement as to number of votes.

A. The State Board shall meet on the third Monday in November to ascertain the results of the November election. If a majority of the Board is not present or if, for any other reason, the Board is unable to ascertain the results on that day, the meeting shall stand adjourned from day to day for not more than three days until a quorum is present and the Board has ascertained the results as provided in this section.

The Board shall examine the certified abstracts on file in its office and make statements of the whole number of votes given at any such election for members of the General Assembly, Governor, Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General, members of the United States Congress and electors of President and Vice President of the United States, and any officer shared by more than one county or city, or any combination thereof, or for so many of such officers as have been voted for at the election.

The statement shall show, for each office and each county, city, and election district, the whole number of votes given to each candidate and to any other person elected to office. The Board members shall certify the statements to be correct and sign the statements. The Board shall then determine those persons who received the greatest number of votes and have been duly elected to each office. The Board members shall endorse and subscribe on such statements a certificate of their determination. The Board shall record each certified statement and determination in a suitable book to be kept by it in its office.

B. The State Board shall meet as soon as possible after it receives the returns for any special election held at a time other than the November general election to ascertain the results of the special election in the manner prescribed in subsection A. If the returns have not been received within seven days of the election, the Board shall meet and adjourn from day to day until it receives the returns, ascertains the results, and makes its determination.

Code 1950, §§ 24-285, 24-286, 24-287, 24-289; 1958, c. 605; 1962, c. 536; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-154, 24.1-155; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 206; 1974, c. 428; 1980, c. 639; 1983, c. 461; 1993, c. 641; 2015, c. 740.

§ 24.2-680. Certificates of election.

Subject to the requirements of § 24.2-948.2, the State Board shall without delay complete and transmit to each of the persons declared to be elected a certificate of his election, certified by it under its seal of office. In the election of a member of the United States Congress, it shall also forward a certificate of election to the clerk of the United States Senate or House of Representatives, as appropriate. The names of members elected to the General Assembly shall be certified by the State Board to the clerk of the House of Delegates or Senate, as appropriate. The names of the persons elected Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and Attorney General shall be certified by the State Board to the clerks of the House of Delegates and Senate. The name of any officer shared by more than one county or city, or any combination thereof, shall be certified by the State Board to the clerk of the circuit court having jurisdiction in each affected county or city. The names of the persons elected to soil and water conservation districts shall be certified by the State Board to the Director of the Department of Conservation and Recreation.

Code 1950, §§ 24-287, 24-289; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-155; 1974, c. 428; 1980, c. 639; 1983, c. 461; 1993, c. 641; 2001, c. 53; 2006, cc. 787, 892.

§ 24.2-411. Office of the general registrar.

A. Each local governing body shall furnish the general registrar with a clearly marked and suitable office which shall be the principal office for voter registration. The office shall be owned or leased by the city or county, or by the state for the location of Department of Motor Vehicles facilities, adequately furnished, and located within the city or within the county or a city in which the county courthouse is located. The governing body shall provide property damage liability and bodily injury liability coverage for the office and shall furnish the general registrar with necessary postage, stationery, equipment, and office supplies. The telephone number shall be listed in the local telephone directory separately or under the local governmental listing under the designation "Voter Registration."

No private business enterprise shall be conducted in the general registrar's office.

B. The general registrar's office in all counties and cities shall be open a minimum of five days each week, except as provided in subsection C.

Additional hours, if any, that the general registrar's office is open for voter registration may be determined and set by the general registrar or the electoral board.

C. The general registrar may close the office of the general registrar (i) for off-site training purposes for no more than four consecutive or cumulative days each year, provided that notice of the closure is posted on the official website of the county or city and in no fewer than two public places at least 72 hours before such closure, and (ii) quarterly to provide training in the office for a period not to exceed four hours without providing notice. However, no closure permitted by clause (i) or clause (ii) shall occur (a) within the seven days immediately preceding and immediately following an election, (b) during the period for absentee voting required by subsection A of § 24.2-701, (c) on the final registration day pursuant to § 24.2-414, or (d) on a deadline specified in the Campaign Finance Disclosure Act of 2006 (§ 24.2-945 et seq.).

Code 1950, §§ 24-52, 24-52.1, 24-55, 24-59 through 24-61, 24-65, 24-66, 24-71 through 24-76, 24-90, 24-93, 24-94, 24-101, 24-111, 24-118.1; 1954, c. 691; 1958, c. 576; 1962, cc. 422, 475, 536; 1963, Ex. Sess., c. 2; 1964, c. 608; 1968, cc. 97, 141; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-43, 24.1-46, 24.1-49; 1972, c. 620; 1973, c. 30; 1974, c. 428; 1975, c. 515; 1976, cc. 12, 616; 1978, c. 778; 1979, c. 329; 1980, c. 639; 1981, c. 425; 1982, cc. 290, 650; 1983, cc. 398, 511; 1984, c. 480; 1985, cc. 197, 530; 1986, c. 558; 1988, cc. 305, 528; 1989, c. 743; 1991, cc. 42, 136; 1993, c. 641; 1997, cc. 650, 666; 2000, cc. 512, 556; 2015, c. 740; 2016, c. 13; 2018, c. 539.

§ 24.2-411.2. State-designated voter registration agencies.

A. The following agencies are designated as voter registration agencies in compliance with the National Voter Registration Act (52 U.S.C. § 20501 et seq.) and shall provide voter registration opportunities at their state, regional, or local offices, depending upon the point of service:

1. Agencies whose primary function is to provide public assistance, including agencies that provide benefits under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program; Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children; Medicaid program; or Food Stamps program;

2. Agencies whose primary function is to provide state-funded programs primarily engaged in providing services to persons with disabilities;

3. Armed Forces recruitment offices; and

4. The regional offices of the Department of Wildlife Resources and the offices of the Virginia Employment Commission in the Northern Virginia Planning District 8.

B. The Commissioner of Elections, with the assistance of the Office of the Attorney General, shall compile and maintain a list of the specific agencies covered by subdivisions A 1 and A 2 that, in the legal opinion of the Attorney General, must be designated to meet the requirements of the National Voter Registration Act. The Commissioner of Elections shall notify each agency of its designation and thereafter notify any agency added to or deleted from the list.

C. At each voter registration agency, the following services shall be made available on the premises of the agency:

1. Distribution of mail voter registration forms provided by the Department of Elections;

2. Assistance to applicants in completing voter registration application forms, unless the applicant refuses assistance; and

3. Receipt of completed voter registration application forms.

D. A voter registration agency, which provides service or assistance in conducting voter registration, shall make the following services available on the premises of the agency:

1. Distribution with each application for its service or assistance, or upon admission to a facility or program, and with each recertification, readmission, renewal, or change of address form, of a voter registration application prescribed by the Department of Elections that complies with the requirements of the National Voter Registration Act (52 U.S.C. § 20501 et seq.).

2. Provision, as part of the voter registration process, of a form that includes:

a. The question: "If you are not registered to vote where you live now, would you like to apply to register to vote here today?"

b. If the agency provides public assistance, the statement: "Applying to register or declining to register to vote will not affect the amount of assistance that you will be provided by this agency."

c. Boxes for the applicant to check to indicate whether the applicant would like to register, declines to register to vote, or is already registered (failure to check any box being deemed to constitute a declination to register for purposes of subdivision 2 a), together with the statement (in close proximity to the boxes and in prominent type): "IF YOU DO NOT CHECK ANY BOX, YOU WILL BE CONSIDERED TO HAVE DECIDED NOT TO REGISTER TO VOTE AT THIS TIME."

d. The statement: "If you would like help in filling out the voter registration application form, we will help you. The decision whether to seek help or accept help is yours. You may fill out the application form in private."

e. The statement: "If you believe that someone has interfered with your right to register or to decline to register to vote, or your right to privacy in deciding whether to register or in applying to register to vote, you may file a complaint with the Department of Elections." The statement shall include the address and telephone number of the Department.

f. The following statement accompanying the form which features prominently in boldface capital letters: "WARNING: INTENTIONALLY MAKING A MATERIALLY FALSE STATEMENT ON THIS FORM CONSTITUTES THE CRIME OF ELECTION FRAUD, WHICH IS PUNISHABLE UNDER VIRGINIA LAW AS A FELONY. VIOLATORS MAY BE SENTENCED TO UP TO 10 YEARS IN PRISON, OR UP TO 12 MONTHS IN JAIL AND/OR FINED UP TO $2,500."

3. Provision to each applicant who does not decline to register to vote of the same degree of assistance with regard to the completion of the voter registration application as is provided by the office with regard to the completion of its own applications, unless the applicant refuses assistance.

E. If a voter registration agency designated under subsection A of this section provides services to a person with a disability at the person's home, the agency shall provide the voter registration services as provided for in this section.

F. A person who provides services at a designated voter registration agency shall not:

1. Seek to influence an applicant's political preference;

2. Display any material indicating the person's political preference or party allegiance;

3. Make any statement to an applicant or take any action the purpose or effect of which is to lead the applicant to believe that a decision to register or not to register has any bearing on the availability of services or benefits; or

4. Disclose, except as authorized by law for official use, the social security number, or any part thereof, of any applicant for voter registration.

Any person who is aggrieved by a violation of this subsection may provide written notice of the violation to the Department. The Department shall be authorized to cooperate with the agency to resolve the alleged violation. Nothing contained in this subsection shall prohibit an aggrieved person from filing a complaint in accordance with § 24.2-1019 against a person who commits any election law offense enumerated in §§ 24.2-1000 through 24.2-1016.

G. A completed voter registration application shall be transmitted as directed by the Department not later than five business days after the date of receipt.

H. Each state-designated voter registration agency shall maintain such statistical records on the number of applications to register to vote as requested by the Department.

1996, cc. 72, 73; 2002, c. 747; 2007, c. 318; 2013, c. 542; 2015, c. 740; 2020, c. 958.

§ 24.2-411.3. (Effective until January 1, 2022) Registration of Department of Motor Vehicles customers.

A. Each person coming into an office of the Department of Motor Vehicles or accessing its website in order to (i) apply for, replace, or renew a driver's license or other document issued under Chapter 3 (§ 46.2-300 et seq.) of Title 46.2 except driver privilege cards or permits issued pursuant to § 46.2-328.3; or (ii) change an address on an existing driver's license or other document issued under Chapter 3 (§ 46.2-300 et seq.) of Title 46.2 except driver privilege cards or permits issued pursuant to § 46.2-328.3 shall be presented with (a) a question asking whether or not the person is a United States citizen and (b) the option to decline to have his information transmitted to the Department of Elections for voter registration purposes. The citizenship question and option to decline shall be accompanied by a statement that intentionally making a materially false statement during the transaction constitutes election fraud and is punishable under Virginia law as a felony.

The Department of Motor Vehicles may not transmit the information of any person who so declines. The Department of Motor Vehicles may not transmit the information of any person who indicates that he is not a United States citizen, nor may such person be asked any additional questions relevant to voter registration but not relevant to the purpose for which the person came to an office of the Department of Motor Vehicles or accessed its website.

B. For each person who does not select the option to decline to have his information transmitted to the Department of Elections for voter registration purposes and who has identified himself as a United States citizen, the Department of Motor Vehicles shall request any information as may be required by the State Board to ensure that the person meets all voter registration eligibility requirements.

C. The Department of Motor Vehicles shall electronically transmit to the Department of Elections, in accordance with the standards set by the State Board, the information collected pursuant to subsection B for any person who (i) has indicated that he is a United States citizen, (ii) has indicated that he is 17 years of age or older, and (iii) at the time of such transaction did not decline to have his information transmitted to the Department of Elections for voter registration purposes.

D. The Department of Elections shall use the information transmitted to determine whether a person already has a registration record in the voter registration system.

1. For any person who does not yet have a registration record in the voter registration system, the Department of Elections shall transmit the information to the appropriate general registrar. The general registrar shall accept or reject the registration of such person in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

2. For any person who already has a registration record in the voter registration system, if the information indicates that the voter has moved within the Commonwealth, the Department of Elections shall transmit the information and the registration record to the appropriate general registrar, who shall treat such transmittal as a request for transfer and process it in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

3. General registrars shall not register any person who does not satisfy all voter eligibility requirements.

2020, cc. 908, 909, 1227, 1246.

§ 24.2-411.3. (Effective January 1, 2022) Registration of Department of Motor Vehicles customers.

A. Each person coming into an office of the Department of Motor Vehicles or accessing its website in order to (i) apply for, replace, or renew a driver's license or other document issued under Chapter 3 (§ 46.2-300 et seq.) of Title 46.2 except driver privilege cards or permits issued pursuant to § 46.2-328.3 or identification privilege cards issued pursuant to § 46.2-345.3; or (ii) change an address on an existing driver's license or other document issued under Chapter 3 (§ 46.2-300 et seq.) of Title 46.2 except driver privilege cards or permits issued pursuant to § 46.2-328.3 or identification privilege cards issued pursuant to § 46.2-345.3 shall be presented with (a) a question asking whether or not the person is a United States citizen and (b) the option to decline to have his information transmitted to the Department of Elections for voter registration purposes. The citizenship question and option to decline shall be accompanied by a statement that intentionally making a materially false statement during the transaction constitutes election fraud and is punishable under Virginia law as a felony.

The Department of Motor Vehicles may not transmit the information of any person who so declines. The Department of Motor Vehicles may not transmit the information of any person who indicates that he is not a United States citizen, nor may such person be asked any additional questions relevant to voter registration but not relevant to the purpose for which the person came to an office of the Department of Motor Vehicles or accessed its website.

B. For each person who does not select the option to decline to have his information transmitted to the Department of Elections for voter registration purposes and who has identified himself as a United States citizen, the Department of Motor Vehicles shall request any information as may be required by the State Board to ensure that the person meets all voter registration eligibility requirements.

C. The Department of Motor Vehicles shall electronically transmit to the Department of Elections, in accordance with the standards set by the State Board, the information collected pursuant to subsection B for any person who (i) has indicated that he is a United States citizen, (ii) has indicated that he is 17 years of age or older, and (iii) at the time of such transaction did not decline to have his information transmitted to the Department of Elections for voter registration purposes.

D. The Department of Elections shall use the information transmitted to determine whether a person already has a registration record in the voter registration system.

1. For any person who does not yet have a registration record in the voter registration system, the Department of Elections shall transmit the information to the appropriate general registrar. The general registrar shall accept or reject the registration of such person in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

2. For any person who already has a registration record in the voter registration system, if the information indicates that the voter has moved within the Commonwealth, the Department of Elections shall transmit the information and the registration record to the appropriate general registrar, who shall treat such transmittal as a request for transfer and process it in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

3. General registrars shall not register any person who does not satisfy all voter eligibility requirements.

2020, cc. 908, 909, 1227, 1246; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 544.

§ 24.2-414. Final registration day.

Each general registrar shall hold a final day of registration on the day before the registration records close under § 24.2-416 for every election held in his jurisdiction. On the final day of registration, the principal office of the general registrar shall be open a minimum of eight hours. The registrar shall make a list by name of any persons in line at the time of closing and shall permit those persons to complete an application to register or to make any necessary changes to their registration records.

Code 1950, §§ 24-74 through 24-76, 24-78; 1963, Ex. Sess., c. 2; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-49; 1975, c. 515; 1976, c. 616; 1984, c. 480; 1985, c. 530; 1988, c. 305; 1989, c. 743; 1991, cc. 42, 136; 1993, cc. 545, 619, 641; 2001, cc. 613, 632; 2008, c. 424.

§ 24.2-414.1. Closing time of registration sites on final day.

The principal office of the registrar shall close for voter registration purposes at 5:00 p.m. on the final day of registration.

2013, c. 680.

§ 24.2-415. Notice of times and locations for registration.

A. The general registrar shall give notice of the date, hours, and locations for registration on the final day of registration at least 10 days before each final day. The notice for the final day shall be posted on the official website of the county or city, if applicable, and published at least once in a newspaper of general circulation in the county or city.

At least three days' advance notice shall be given for other times and locations for voter registration. This notice shall be posted on the official website of the county or city, if applicable, and published at least once in a newspaper of general circulation in the county or city, or announced at least twice on a television station serving the county or city.

B. Notice shall not be required for (i) the regular office hours for the general registrar's office or any other office normally staffed by one or more registrars, (ii) any office or location offering voter registration services or forms in the normal course of its daily business, or (iii) any other location at which mail applications are offered under Article 3.1 (§ 24.2-416.1 et seq.) of this chapter but no registrar, nor any person authorized to receive voter registration applications pursuant to § 24.2-415.1, is present.

Code 1950, §§ 24-74 through 24-76, 24-78; 1963, Ex. Sess., c. 2; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-49; 1975, c. 515; 1976, c. 616; 1984, c. 480; 1985, c. 530; 1988, c. 305; 1989, c. 743; 1991, cc. 42, 136; 1993, c. 641; 2003, c. 969; 2012, cc. 328, 486.

§ 24.2-415.1. Persons authorized to receive voter registration applications.

A. Any designated employee of a state-designated voter registration agency or Armed Forces recruitment office shall be authorized to receive a voter registration application when hand delivered by the applicant during the hours that the office is open.

B. The registration date for a valid voter registration application that has been hand delivered is the date when received by any general registrar or any person authorized to receive voter registration applications pursuant to subsection A.

1996, cc. 72, 73; 2020, cc. 908, 909.

§ 24.2-416. Closing registration records before elections.

A. In any county, city, or town in which an election is being held, the registration records shall be closed for the purpose of registering voters on the election day and during the period in advance of the election as provided in this section. The registration records shall be closed during the 21 days before a primary or general election. If the registration records have not been closed previously for a primary or general election, they shall be closed during the six days before a special election called by the Governor, Speaker of the House of Delegates, or President pro tempore of the Senate, or pursuant to rule or resolution of either house of the General Assembly and during the 13 days before any other special election.

B. In the event that a failure of the Virginia online voter registration system occurs prior to the close of registration records pursuant to this section, the Governor shall have the authority to order the online voter registration system to be available for registration activities after the date for closing the registration records for a period of time equal to the amount of time during which the online voter registration system was unavailable for registration activities, rounded up to the nearest whole day, plus an additional day to allow for voter education efforts. During this period, persons shall be permitted to register in person and mail voter registration applications shall be accepted.

Code 1950, §§ 24-82, 24-83.1; 1962, c. 536; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-50; 1973, c. 30; 1975, c. 515; 1993, c. 641; 2008, c. 424; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 159.

§ 24.2-416.1. Voter registration by mail.

A person may apply to register to vote by mail by completing and returning a mail voter registration application form in the manner and time provided by law.

1996, cc. 72, 73; 2003, c. 1015; 2020, cc. 718, 1149, 1151, 1201; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 471.

§ 24.2-416.2. Mail voter registration application forms.

Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 24.2-418 and 24.2-418.1, the national mail voter registration application form promulgated by the Election Assistance Commission pursuant to the National Voter Registration Act (52 U.S.C. § 20501 et seq.) shall be accepted for the registration of otherwise qualified voters to vote in federal, state, and local elections. In addition to the national form promulgated by the Election Assistance Commission, the State Board of Elections shall design and distribute a state mail voter registration application form. Such state form shall include the eligibility requirements for registration as provided in this title, shall provide for a receipt for the applicant pursuant to § 24.2-418.1, and shall require each applicant to provide the information required subject to felony penalties for making false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016.

Each state form shall be accompanied by the following statement featured prominently in boldface capital letters: "WARNING: INTENTIONALLY MAKING A MATERIALLY FALSE STATEMENT ON THIS FORM CONSTITUTES THE CRIME OF ELECTION FRAUD, WHICH IS PUNISHABLE UNDER VIRGINIA LAW AS A FELONY. VIOLATORS MAY BE SENTENCED TO UP TO 10 YEARS IN PRISON, OR UP TO 12 MONTHS IN JAIL AND/OR FINED UP TO $2,500."

1996, cc. 72, 73; 2008, c. 865; 2015, c. 740.

§ 24.2-416.3. Distribution of mail voter registration application forms.

A. Subject to the conditions set forth in § 24.2-416.6, the Department of Elections shall make available to any individual or group a reasonable number of mail voter registration application forms.

B. The Department shall provide a reasonable number of mail voter registration application forms to each agent of the Department of Wildlife Resources authorized to sell hunting or fishing licenses in Virginia. The Department of Wildlife Resources shall assist the Department by providing a list of its agents appointed to sell hunting and fishing licenses in Virginia and by instructing its agents to make the mail voter registration application forms available to persons purchasing hunting or fishing licenses.

C. The Department shall provide a reasonable number of mail voter registration application forms to (i) each public institution of higher education, as that term is defined in § 23.1-100; (ii) each nonprofit private institution of higher education, as that term is defined in § 23.1-100, that is eligible to participate in the Tuition Assistance Grant Program pursuant to Article 5 (§ 23.1-628 et seq.) of Chapter 6 of Title 23.1; and (iii) any other entity authorized to issue bonds pursuant to Chapter 11 (§ 23.1-1100 et seq.) of Title 23.1. The State Council of Higher Education for Virginia shall assist the Department by providing a list of such institutions and by requesting those institutions to make the mail voter registration application forms available to students.

1996, cc. 72, 73; 2011, cc. 197, 225; 2013, c. 465; 2015, c. 740; 2020, cc. 921, 958.

§ 24.2-416.4. Return of mail voter registration applications.

A. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 24.2-416, a mail voter registration application returned through the United States Postal Service shall be deemed to have been made as of the date of the postmark affixed to such application by the United States Postal Service. If no such postmark is affixed or if the postmark affixed by the United States Postal Service is illegible or bears no date, such application shall be deemed to have been timely if received through the United States mail no later than five days following the time for the closing of the registration books pursuant to § 24.2-416.

B. In any other case, a completed mail voter registration application shall be deemed timely if received by any general registrar or any person authorized to receive voter registration applications pursuant to § 24.2-415.1 by 5:00 p.m. on the final day of registration provided for in § 24.2-414.

1996, cc. 72, 73; 2013, c. 680.

§ 24.2-416.5. Social security number or parts thereof not to be disclosed.

Any person assisting an applicant with the completion or return of a mail voter registration application shall not copy, disclose or make any use of the social security number, or any part thereof, of the applicant except as authorized by law for official use.

1996, cc. 72, 73; 2007, c. 318.

§ 24.2-416.6. Registration by and instructions for voter registration drives; compensation prohibitions.

Whenever the Department of Elections, local electoral board, or general registrar's office furnishes individuals or groups multiple copies of the voter registration application, it shall provide accompanying instructions that contain a copy and explanation of § 24.2-1002.01 and the penalty for destruction of, or failure to mail or deliver, voter registration applications that have been signed. Any like instructions furnished to the public by whatever means shall contain a copy and explanation of § 24.2-1002.01 and the penalty for destruction of, or failure to mail or deliver, voter registration applications. When obtaining 25 or more voter registration applications, such individuals or groups shall be required to register with and provide to the Department, local electoral board, or general registrar's office such information as required by the Department. Such individuals or agents representing a group shall be required to receive training as approved by the State Board and sign a sworn affidavit on a form prescribed by the State Board attesting that such individuals or organizations will abide by all Virginia laws and rules regarding the registration of voters.

No individual or group shall compensate its volunteers or employees on the basis of the number of completed voter registration applications the volunteer or employee collects. No volunteer or employee of an individual or group shall accept compensation based on the number of completed voter registration applications he collects.

2005, cc. 339, 412; 2013, c. 465; 2015, c. 740; 2017, c. 336.

§ 24.2-417. Persons to be registered.

Each registrar shall register every resident of his county or city who has the qualifications required by the Constitution of Virginia and this title and who applies for registration or transfer of his registration from another county or city in the Commonwealth at the time and in the manner required by law.

§ 24.2-417.1. Registration residence requirements; presumptions in certain cases.

In determining the residence as defined in § 24.2-101 and the domicile and place of abode of a participant in the American Conservation and Youth Service Corps provided for by federal law (42 U.S.C. § 12655 et seq.), there shall be a presumption that a participant in the Corps who was domiciled and had a place of abode in Virginia at the time of entering the Corps continues to be domiciled and retains the same place of abode unless the participant expressly states otherwise.

In determining the residence as defined in § 24.2-101 and domicile and place of abode of a military or merchant marine spouse or dependent, there shall be a presumption that a military or merchant marine spouse or dependent who has established physical presence and a place of abode in the Commonwealth shall also have established domicile in the Commonwealth unless the spouse or dependent expressly states otherwise. Once residence is changed, the military or merchant marine spouse or dependent may not revert to any previous residence without re-establishing new physical presence and intent to remain or return.

1995, c. 231; 2006, c. 391.

Any person, once properly registered, shall remain registered unless his registration is cancelled pursuant to Article 5 (§ 24.2-427 et seq.) of this chapter.

Code 1950, §§ 24-67, 24-68; 1952, c. 341; 1958, c. 576; 1960, c. 288; 1962, c. 536; 1963, Ex. Sess., c. 2; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-47, 24.1-48; 1971, Ex. Sess., cc. 119, 205; 1972, c. 620; 1974, c. 428; 1977, c. 490; 1980, c. 639; 1989, c. 138; 1992, c. 433; 1993, c. 641; 1996, cc. 72, 73; 2000, c. 857.

§ 24.2-418. Application for registration.

A. Each applicant to register shall provide, subject to felony penalties for making false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016, the information necessary to complete the application to register. Unless physically disabled, he shall sign the application. The application to register shall be only on a form or forms prescribed by the State Board.

The form of the application to register shall require the applicant to provide the following information: full name; gender; date of birth; social security number, if any; whether the applicant is presently a United States citizen; address of residence in the precinct; place of last previous registration to vote; and whether the applicant has ever been adjudicated incapacitated and disqualified to vote or convicted of a felony, and if so, whether the applicant's right to vote has been restored. The form shall contain a statement that whoever votes more than once in any election in the same or different jurisdictions is guilty of a Class 6 felony. Unless directed by the applicant or as permitted in § 24.2-411.2 or 24.2-411.3, the registration application shall not be pre-populated with information the applicant is required to provide.

The form of the application to register shall request that the applicant provide his telephone number and email address, but no application shall be denied for failure to provide such information.

B. The form shall permit any individual, as follows, or member of his household, to furnish, in addition to his residence street address, a post office box address located within the Commonwealth to be included in lieu of his street address on the lists of registered voters and persons who voted, which are furnished pursuant to §§ 24.2-405 and 24.2-406, on voter registration records made available for public inspection pursuant to § 24.2-444, or on lists of absentee voter applicants furnished pursuant to § 24.2-706 or 24.2-710. The voter shall comply with the provisions of § 24.2-424 for any change in the post office box address provided under this subsection.

1. Any active or retired law-enforcement officer, as defined in § 9.1-101 and in 5 U.S.C. § 8331(20), but excluding officers whose duties relate to detention as defined in 5 U.S.C. § 8331(20);

2. Any party granted a protective order issued by or under the authority of any court of competent jurisdiction, including but not limited to courts of the Commonwealth of Virginia;

3. Any party who has furnished a signed written statement by the party that he is in fear for his personal safety from another person who has threatened or stalked him;

4. Any party participating in the address confidentiality program pursuant to § 2.2-515.2;

5. Any active or retired federal or Virginia justice or judge and any active or retired attorney employed by the United States Attorney General or Virginia Attorney General; and

6. Any person who has been approved to be a foster parent pursuant to Chapter 9 (§ 63.2-900 et seq.) of Title 63.2.

C. If the applicant formerly resided in another state, the general registrar shall send the information contained in the applicant's registration application to the appropriate voter registration official or other authority of another state where the applicant formerly resided, as prescribed in subdivision 15 of § 24.2-114.

Code 1950, §§ 24-28, 24-68; 1952, c. 341; 1958, c. 576; 1960, c. 288; 1962, c. 536; 1968, c. 97; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-22, 24.1-48; 1971, Ex. Sess., cc. 205, 247; 1972, c. 620; 1974, c. 428; 1975, c. 515; 1977, c. 490; 1980, c. 639; 1989, c. 138; 1992, c. 433; 1993, c. 641; 1994, c. 250; 1995, c. 314; 1996, c. 251; 1997, cc. 346, 801; 2001, cc. 612, 626; 2004, c. 184; 2009, cc. 318, 865, 870, 874; 2010, cc. 795, 812; 2012, c. 491; 2013, c. 465; 2015, c. 740; 2016, cc. 630, 633; 2019, c. 342; 2020, cc. 710, 857, 908, 909.

§ 24.2-418.1. Receipt for voter registration applicants.

A. The state form for the application to register to vote shall contain a receipt that shall be given to the applicant upon his completion of the form. The receipt shall be completed by the person receiving the form from the applicant and shall include the following information: the name of the office, group, or person receiving the registration application; the date that the office, group, or person received the registration application from the applicant; and the phone number of the general registrar or the toll-free phone number of the Department of Elections that the applicant may call to confirm his registration.

B. The requirement to complete the receipt as provided in subsection A shall not be applicable when a completed form is mailed directly to or completed in the office of a general registrar or the Department.

2008, c. 865; 2015, c. 740.

§ 24.2-419. Extended time for certain persons to register by mail.

The registration application of the following persons may accompany an application for an absentee ballot and shall be on a form prescribed by the State Board, on a federal postcard application, or on a federal write-in absentee ballot:

1. Any member of a uniformed service, as defined in § 24.2-452, who is on active duty;

2. Any spouse or dependent residing with a person listed in subdivision 1; and

3. Any person temporarily residing outside the United States.

The registration application from a person listed in subdivisions 1 and 2 may be accepted notwithstanding the provisions of § 24.2-416 if they are eligible to be registered and if, by reason of active duty, they are normally absent from the city or county in which they reside.

Code 1950, § 24-68; 1952, c. 341; 1958, c. 576; 1960, c. 288; 1962, c. 536; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-48; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 205; 1972, c. 620; 1974, c. 428; 1977, c. 490; 1980, c. 639; 1989, c. 138; 1992, c. 433; 1993, c. 641; 1995, c. 296; 2002, cc. 785, 819; 2004, c. 410; 2012, c. 353.

§ 24.2-420.1. (Effective until October 1, 2022) Extended time for certain persons to register in person.

A. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 24.2-416, the following persons shall be entitled to register in person up to and including the day of the election:

1. Any member of a uniformed service of the United States, as defined in § 24.2-452, who is on active duty;

2. Any person who resides temporarily outside of the United States; and

3. Any spouse or dependent residing with a person listed in subdivision 1 or 2 of this subsection.

The provisions of this subsection shall apply only to those persons who are otherwise qualified to register and who, by reason of such active duty or temporary overseas residency, either (i) are normally absent from the city or county in which they reside or (ii) have been absent from such city or county and returned to reside there during the twenty-eight days immediately preceding the election.

B. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 24.2-416, any person who was on active duty as a member of a uniformed service as defined in § 24.2-452 and discharged from the uniformed service during the sixty days immediately preceding the election, and his spouse or dependent, shall be entitled to register, if otherwise qualified, in person up to and including the day of the election.

C. The Department shall prescribe procedures for the addition of persons registered under this section to the lists of registered voters.

1995, c. 296; 2002, cc. 785, 819; 2015, c. 740.

§ 24.2-420.1. (Effective October 1, 2022) Extended time for persons to register in person.

A. Notwithstanding the provisions of § 24.2-416, any person who is qualified to register to vote shall be entitled to register in person up to and including the day of the election at the office of the general registrar in the locality in which such person resides or at the polling place for the precinct in which such person resides.

B. The Department shall prescribe procedures for the addition of persons registered under this section to the lists of registered voters.

1995, c. 296; 2002, cc. 785, 819; 2015, c. 740; 2020, c. 1153.

§ 24.2-422. (Effective until January 1, 2022) Appeal of person denied registration.

A. Within five days after the denial of an application to register, the general registrar shall notify the applicant of the denial. Notice shall be given in writing and by email or telephone if such information was provided by the applicant.

The general registrar shall send a new application for registration to the applicant with the form prescribed in subsection B. If the applicant provided his email address on the application for registration, the general registrar may send information to that email address regarding online voter registration. The general registrar shall advise the applicant that he may complete and submit the new application, in lieu of filing an appeal, if the reason stated for denial is that the applicant has failed to sign the application or failed to provide a required item of information on the application. If the general registrar is able to reach the applicant by telephone, corrections may be made by the applicant by telephone. Any applicant who returns a second application and whose second application is denied shall have the right to appeal provided in subsection B.

B. A person denied registration shall have the right to appeal, without payment of writ tax or giving security for costs, to the circuit court of the county or city in which he offers to register by filing with the clerk of the court, within 10 days of being notified of the denial, a petition in writing to have his right to register determined.

The petitioner may file his petition by completing and filing a form which shall be prescribed by the State Board and which shall be used by the general registrar to notify an applicant of the denial of his application to register and of the reasons for the denial. The form shall (i) state that an applicant denied registration has the right to appeal to the circuit court of the county or city in which he offers to register, (ii) give the name and address of the clerk of the circuit court for such county or city (to be supplied by the general registrar), (iii) state that a filing fee of $10 must be paid when filing the petition, (iv) contain a statement by which the applicant may indicate his desire to petition the court to have his right to register determined, and (v) provide space for the applicant to state the facts in support of his right to register.

On the filing of a petition to have the right to register determined, the clerk of the court shall immediately bring the matter to the attention of the chief judge of the court for the scheduling of a hearing on the petition. The matter shall be heard and determined on the face of the petition, the answer made in writing by the general registrar, and any evidence introduced as part of the proceedings. The proceedings shall take precedence over all other business of the court and shall be heard as soon as possible.

On the filing of the petition, the clerk of the court shall immediately give notice to the attorney for the Commonwealth for his county or city, who shall appear and defend against the petition on behalf of the Commonwealth.

Judgment in favor of the petitioner shall entitle him to registration. From a judgment rendered against the petitioner, an appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court of Virginia.

C. The provisions of § 24.2-416, pertaining to the closing of registration records in advance of an election, shall apply to any application submitted pursuant to subsection A or B following a denial of registration.

Code 1950, § 24-112; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-67; 1974, c. 428; 1985, c. 351; 1993, c. 641; 1997, c. 114; 2001, c. 627; 2019, c. 341; 2020, c. 857.

§ 24.2-422. (Effective January 1, 2022) Appeal of person denied registration.

A. Within five days after the denial of an application to register, the general registrar shall notify the applicant of the denial. Notice shall be given in writing and by email or telephone if such information was provided by the applicant.

The general registrar shall send a new application for registration to the applicant with the form prescribed in subsection B. If the applicant provided his email address on the application for registration, the general registrar may send information to that email address regarding online voter registration. The general registrar shall advise the applicant that he may complete and submit the new application, in lieu of filing an appeal, if the reason stated for denial is that the applicant has failed to sign the application or failed to provide a required item of information on the application. If the general registrar is able to reach the applicant by telephone, corrections may be made by the applicant by telephone. Any applicant who returns a second application and whose second application is denied shall have the right to appeal provided in subsection B.

B. A person denied registration shall have the right to appeal, without payment of writ tax or giving security for costs, to the circuit court of the county or city in which he offers to register by filing with the clerk of the court, within 10 days of being notified of the denial, a petition in writing to have his right to register determined.

The petitioner may file his petition by completing and filing a form which shall be prescribed by the State Board and which shall be used by the general registrar to notify an applicant of the denial of his application to register and of the reasons for the denial. The form shall (i) state that an applicant denied registration has the right to appeal to the circuit court of the county or city in which he offers to register, (ii) give the name and address of the clerk of the circuit court for such county or city (to be supplied by the general registrar), (iii) state that a filing fee of $10 must be paid when filing the petition, (iv) contain a statement by which the applicant may indicate his desire to petition the court to have his right to register determined, and (v) provide space for the applicant to state the facts in support of his right to register.

On the filing of a petition to have the right to register determined, the clerk of the court shall immediately bring the matter to the attention of the chief judge of the court for the scheduling of a hearing on the petition. The matter shall be heard and determined on the face of the petition, the answer made in writing by the general registrar, and any evidence introduced as part of the proceedings. The proceedings shall take precedence over all other business of the court and shall be heard as soon as possible.

On the filing of the petition, the clerk of the court shall immediately give notice to the attorney for the Commonwealth for his county or city, who shall appear and defend against the petition on behalf of the Commonwealth.

Judgment in favor of the petitioner shall entitle him to registration. From a judgment rendered against the petitioner, an appeal shall lie to the Court of Appeals.

C. The provisions of § 24.2-416, pertaining to the closing of registration records in advance of an election, shall apply to any application submitted pursuant to subsection A or B following a denial of registration.

Code 1950, § 24-112; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-67; 1974, c. 428; 1985, c. 351; 1993, c. 641; 1997, c. 114; 2001, c. 627; 2019, c. 341; 2020, c. 857; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 489.

§ 24.2-423. Notice of change of name of registered voter.

Whenever a registered voter changes his legal name, either by marriage, divorce, order of court, or otherwise, the voter shall promptly notify the general registrar of the jurisdiction where he is registered. Such notice may be made in writing or on a form approved by the State Board of Elections, which may be electronic. The notice in writing may be provided by mail or by facsimile and shall be signed by the voter unless he is physically unable to sign, in which case his own mark acknowledged by a witness shall be sufficient signature. Notice may be provided by electronic means as authorized by the State Board and signed by the voter in a manner consistent with the provisions of § 24.2-416.7 and the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (§ 59.1-479 et seq.). The general registrar shall enter the new name on the registration records and issue the voter a new voter registration card.

Code 1950, § 24-81; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-51; 1993, c. 641; 2003, c. 1015; 2013, c. 520.

§ 24.2-424. Change of registered voter's address within the Commonwealth; pilot project.

A. Whenever a registered voter changes his place of residence within the Commonwealth, he shall promptly notify any general registrar of the address of his new residence. Such notice may be made in person, in writing, by return of the voter registration card noting the new address, or on a form approved by the State Board of Elections, which may be electronic. The notice in writing may be provided by mail or by facsimile and shall be signed by the voter unless he is physically unable to sign, in which case his own mark acknowledged by a witness shall be sufficient signature. Notice may be provided by electronic means as authorized by the State Board and signed by the voter in a manner consistent with the provisions of § 24.2-416.7 and the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act (§ 59.1-479 et seq.). The fact that a voter provides an address on a candidate or referendum petition that differs from the address for the voter on the voter registration system shall not be sufficient notice to change the voter's registration address. Any statements made by any voter applying for transfer are subject to felony penalties for making a false statement pursuant to § 24.2-1016.

B. If the voter has moved within the same county or city, on receipt of the notification, the general registrar for that county or city shall (i) enter the new address on the registration record; (ii) if satisfied that the registered voter has moved into another precinct within the same county or city, transfer the registration of the voter to that precinct; and (iii) send the voter confirmation documents. This transfer may be entered in the registration records at any time the registration records are not closed pursuant to § 24.2-416.

C. Any request for transfer or change of address within the Commonwealth delivered to any registrar shall be forwarded to the general registrar for the city or county in the Commonwealth where the voter now resides. When forwarding said notice, or upon request from the registrar for the county or city where the voter now resides, the registrar for the county or city where the voter formerly resided shall forward the original application for registration to the registrar for the voter's new locality.

D. Upon receipt of the voter's original registration application, and notice as specified in subsection A of this section indicating the voter's current residence, the registrar for the county or city in which the voter currently resides shall: (i) enter the new address on the registration record; (ii) if satisfied that the registered voter has moved into a precinct within that county or city, transfer the registration of the voter to that precinct; (iii) send the voter confirmation documents; and (iv) through the Virginia voter registration system, notify the registrar of the locality where the voter formerly resided that the registration has been transferred. This transfer may be entered in the registration records at any time the registration records are not closed pursuant to § 24.2-416.

E. If the original registration application is no longer available to the registrar in the city or county where the voter formerly resided, either of the following shall be sent to and accepted by the registrar in the city or county where the voter now resides in lieu of such application: (i) an unsigned voter card (or conversion card) used as the voter record upon the creation of the statewide voter registration system or (ii) a replacement record provided by the Department to replace damaged files in the registrar's office. If no other record is available, then the registrar of the voter's former locality shall provide written notification to the registrar of the locality in which the voter now resides that none of the required documents are available. In this instance only, the registrar of the locality in which the voter now resides shall copy the voter's record from the Virginia voter registration system and use that record in lieu of the original voter registration application. Any complete voter registration application on a form previously authorized for use in Virginia shall be valid for the purposes of continuing or transferring a voter's registration within the Commonwealth.

Code 1950, § 24-85; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-52; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 247; 1977, c. 490; 1993, c. 641; 2000, c. 857; 2001, cc. 615, 625; 2002, c. 279; 2003, c. 1015; 2013, cc. 520, 684; 2015, c. 740.

§ 24.2-444. Duties of general registrars and Department of Elections as to voter registration records; public inspection; exceptions.

A. Registration records shall be kept and preserved by the general registrar in compliance with §§ 2.2-3803, 2.2-3808, and 24.2-114. The Department shall provide to each general registrar, for each precinct in his county or city, lists of registered voters for inspection. The lists shall contain the name, address, year of birth, gender and all election districts applicable to each registered voter. The lists shall be opened to public inspection at the office of the general registrar when the office is open for business. New lists shall be provided not less than once each year to all localities except those in which an updated list is made available electronically for public inspection, and supplements containing additions, deletions, and changes shall be provided not less than (i) weekly during the 60 days preceding any general election and (ii) monthly at other times. Notwithstanding any other provision of law regarding the retention of records, upon receipt of any new complete list, the general registrar shall destroy the obsolete list and its supplements. The Department shall provide to each general registrar lists of persons denied registration for public inspection. Such lists may be provided electronically through the Virginia voter registration system and produced in whole or in part upon a request for public inspection.

B. The general registrars shall maintain for at least two years and shall make available for public inspection and copying and, where available, photocopying at a reasonable cost, all records concerning the implementation of programs and activities conducted for the purpose of ensuring the accuracy and currency of the registration records pursuant to §§ 24.2-427, 24.2-428 and 24.2-428.1, including lists of the names and addresses of all persons to whom notices are sent, and information concerning whether each person has responded to the notice as of the date that inspection of the records is made.

C. No list provided by the Department under subsection A nor any record made available for public inspection under subsection B shall contain any of the following information: (i) an individual's social security number, or any part thereof; (ii) the residence address of an individual who has furnished a post office box address in lieu of his residence address as authorized by subsection B of § 24.2-418; (iii) the declination by an individual to register to vote and related records; (iv) the identity of a voter registration agency through which a particular voter is registered; or (v) the day and month of birth of an individual. No voter registration records other than the lists provided by the Department under subsection A and the records made available under subsection B shall be open to public inspection.

Code 1950, § 24-113; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-56; 1993, c. 641; 1994, c. 656; 1996, cc. 72, 73; 2001, cc. 612, 626; 2003, c. 1015; 2007, cc. 311, 318; 2008, c. 379; 2009, c. 318; 2012, c. 353; 2015, c. 740.

§ 24.2-445. Registration records controlling in event of conflict.

In the event of a conflict as to whether a person is registered to vote, the registration and voting records in the possession of the general registrar shall be controlling.

1970, c. 462, § 24.1-28; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-446. Reconstruction of destroyed registration records.

Whenever the registration records of a county or city have been destroyed by fire or otherwise, the Department shall provide substitute active registration records obtained from the Virginia voter registration system.

For active registration records not retrievable from the system, the general registrar shall give notice that he is reconstructing such records by posting the notice at ten places in the jurisdiction or publishing it once in a newspaper having general circulation in the jurisdiction.

In the reconstruction, the registrar shall place on the registration records the names of all voters known by him who have been previously registered, or who can show by evidence satisfactory to the registrar that their names were on the old records and who still reside in the county or city.

Code 1950, § 24-91; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-58; 1993, c. 641; 2015, c. 740.

§ 24.2-447. Persons registered prior to this title.

Any person validly registered to vote as of December 1, 1993, shall continue to be registered subject to the provisions of this title.

Code 1950, § 24-117; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-69; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-305. Composition of election districts and precincts.

A. Each election district and precinct shall be composed of compact and contiguous territory and shall have clearly defined and clearly observable boundaries.

B. A "clearly observable boundary" shall include (i) any named road or street, (ii) any road or highway which is a part of the federal, primary, or secondary state highway system, (iii) any river, stream, or drainage feature shown as a polygon boundary on the TIGER/line files of the United States Bureau of the Census, or (iv) any other natural or constructed or erected permanent physical feature which is shown on an official map issued by the Virginia Department of Transportation, on a United States Geological Survey topographical map, or as a polygon boundary on the TIGER/line files of the United States Bureau of the Census. No property line or subdivision boundary shall be deemed to be a clearly observable boundary unless it is marked by a permanent physical feature that is shown on an official map issued by the Virginia Department of Transportation, on a United States Geological Survey topographical map, or as a polygon boundary on the TIGER/line files of the United States Bureau of the Census.

1986, c. 593, § 24.1-40.7; 1990, c. 500; 1992, c. 425; 1993, c. 641; 2001, c. 614.

§ 24.2-306. Changes not to be enacted within 60 days of general election; notice requirements.

A. No change in any local election district, precinct, or polling place shall be enacted within 60 days next preceding any general election. In addition to the requirements set forth in § 24.2-129, notice shall be published prior to enactment in a newspaper having general circulation in the election district or precinct once a week for two successive weeks. The published notice shall state where descriptions and maps of proposed boundary and polling place changes may be inspected.

B. Notice of any adopted change in any election district, town, precinct, or polling place other than in the location of the office of the general registrar shall be mailed to all registered voters whose election district, town, precinct, or polling place is changed at least 15 days prior to the next general, special, or primary election in which the voters will be voting in the changed election district, town, precinct, or polling place. Notice of a change in the location of the office of the general registrar shall be given by posting on the official website of the county or city, by posting at not less than 10 public places, or by publication once in a newspaper of general circulation in the county or city within not more than 21 days in advance of the change or within seven days following the change.

C. Each county, city, and town shall comply with the applicable requirements of law, including §§ 24.2-304.3 and 30-395, and send copies of enacted changes, including a Geographic Information System (GIS) map showing the new boundaries of the districts or precincts, to the local electoral board, the Department, and the Division of Legislative Services. Any county, city, or town that does not have GIS capabilities may request the Department of Elections to create on its behalf a GIS map showing the boundaries of the new districts or precincts, and the Department of Elections shall create such a map.

Code 1950, §§ 24-49 through 24-51; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-39; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 119; 1993, c. 641; 1995, c. 249; 2003, c. 1015; 2004, c. 1000; 2012, cc. 328, 486; 2019, cc. 777, 778; 2020, Sp. Sess. I, c. 56; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, cc. 528, 533.

§ 24.2-307. Requirements for county and city precincts.

The governing body of each county and city shall establish by ordinance as many precincts as it deems necessary. Each governing body is authorized to increase or decrease the number of precincts and alter precinct boundaries subject to the requirements of this chapter.

At the time any precinct is established, it shall have no more than 5,000 registered voters. The general registrar shall notify the governing body whenever the number of voters who voted in a precinct in an election for President of the United States exceeds 4,000. Within six months of receiving the notice, the governing body shall proceed to revise the precinct boundaries, and any newly established or redrawn precinct shall have no more than 5,000 registered voters.

At the time any precinct is established, each precinct in a county shall have no fewer than 100 registered voters and each precinct in a city shall have no fewer than 500 registered voters.

Each precinct shall be wholly contained within a single congressional district, Senate district, House of Delegates district, and election district used for the election of one or more members of the governing body or school board for the county or city. In each year ending in one, the governing body of each county and city shall establish the precinct boundaries to be consistent with any congressional district, Senate district, House of Delegates district, and local election district that was adopted by the appropriate authority by June 15 of that year. If congressional districts, Senate districts, House of Delegates districts, or local election districts have not been adopted by the appropriate authority by June 15 of a year ending in one, the governing body may use the congressional districts, Senate districts, House of Delegates districts, or local election districts as such districts existed on June 15 of that year as the basis for establishing the precinct boundaries to be used for the elections to be held in November of that year. Such governing body shall establish precinct boundaries to be consistent with any subsequent changes to the congressional districts, Senate districts, House of Delegates districts, or local election districts. If a governing body is unable to establish a precinct with the minimum number of registered voters without splitting the precinct between two or more congressional districts, Senate districts, House of Delegates districts, or local election districts, it shall apply to the State Board for a waiver to administer a split precinct. The State Board may grant the waiver or direct the governing body to establish a precinct with fewer than the minimum number of registered voters as permitted by § 24.2-309. A governing body granted a waiver to administer a split precinct or directed to establish a precinct with fewer than the minimum number of registered voters may use such a precinct for any election held that year.

The governing body shall establish by ordinance one polling place for each precinct.

Code 1950, §§ 24-45, 24-46; 1954, c. 375; 1956, c. 378; 1962, cc. 185, 536; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-36, 24.1-37; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 119; 1976, c. 616; 1977, c. 30; 1978, c. 778; 1980, c. 639; 1992, c. 445; 1993, c. 641; 1999, c. 515; 2020, c. 1268.

§ 24.2-308. Requirements for town precincts.

There shall be one precinct for each town unless the council by ordinance establishes more than one precinct.

Each town precinct shall be wholly contained within any election district used for the election of one or more council or school board members.

The council shall establish by ordinance one polling place for each precinct.

Code 1950, § 24-171; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-92; 1978, c. 778; 1980, c. 639; 1981, c. 425; 1992, c. 445; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-309. Establishment of precinct with less than minimum number of voters; conduct of elections where all voters do not have same choice of candidates.

A precinct may be established with fewer than the minimum number of registered voters required by this article if a larger precinct cannot be established in which all persons are voting at any general election for the same candidates for the governing body and school board of the county or city, House of Delegates, state Senate, and United States House of Representatives. The governing body may select a polling place within one mile of the boundaries of that precinct if a suitable polling place is not available within that precinct.

The State Board shall make regulations setting procedures by which elections may be conducted in precincts in which all voters do not have the same choice of candidates at a general election.

1971, Ex. Sess., c. 264, § 24.1-40; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-309.2. Election precincts; prohibiting precinct changes for specified period of time.

No county, city, or town shall create, divide, abolish, or consolidate any precincts, or otherwise change the boundaries of any precinct, effective during the period from February 1, 2019, to May 15, 2021, except as (i) provided by law upon a change in the boundaries of the county, city, or town, (ii) the result of a court order, (iii) the result of a change in the form of government, or (iv) the result of an increase or decrease in the number of local election districts other than at-large districts. Any ordinance required to comply with the requirements of § 24.2-307 shall be adopted on or before February 1, 2019.

If a change in the boundaries of a precinct is required pursuant to clause (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv), the county, city, or town shall comply with the applicable requirements of law, including §§ 24.2-304.3 and 30-395, and send copies of the ordered or enacted changes to the State Board of Elections and the Division of Legislative Services.

This section shall not prohibit any county, city, or town from adopting an ordinance revising precinct boundaries after January 1, 2021. However, no revisions in precinct boundaries shall be implemented in the conduct of elections prior to May 15, 2021.

2008, c. 112; 2018, cc. 778, 779; 2020, Sp. Sess. I, c. 56.

§ 24.2-310. Requirements for polling places.

A. The polling place for each precinct shall be located within the county or city and either within the precinct or within one mile of the precinct boundary. The polling place for a county precinct may be located within a city (i) if the city is wholly contained within the county election district served by the precinct or (ii) if the city is wholly contained within the county and the polling place is located on property owned by the county. The polling place for a town precinct may be located within one mile of the precinct and town boundary. For town elections held in November, the town shall use the polling places established by the county for its elections.

B. The governing body of each county, city, and town shall provide funds to enable the general registrar to provide adequate facilities at each polling place for the conduct of elections. Each polling place shall be located in a public building whenever practicable. If more than one polling place is located in the same building, each polling place shall be located in a separate room or separate and defined space.

C. Polling places shall be accessible to qualified voters as required by the provisions of the Virginians with Disabilities Act (§ 51.5-1 et seq.), the Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act (52 U.S.C. § 20101 et seq.), and the Americans with Disabilities Act relating to public services (42 U.S.C. § 12131 et seq.). The State Board shall provide instructions to the local electoral boards and general registrars to assist the localities in complying with the requirements of the Acts.

D. If an emergency makes a polling place unusable or inaccessible, the electoral board or the general registrar shall provide an alternative polling place and give notice of the change in polling place, including to all candidates, or such candidate's campaign, appearing on the ballot to be voted at the alternative polling place, subject to the prior approval of the State Board. The general registrar shall provide notice to the voters appropriate to the circumstances of the emergency. For the purposes of this subsection, an "emergency" means a rare and unforeseen combination of circumstances, or the resulting state, that calls for immediate action.

E. It shall be permissible to distribute campaign materials on the election day on the property on which a polling place is located and outside of the building containing the room where the election is conducted except as specifically prohibited by law including, without limitation, the prohibitions of § 24.2-604 and the establishment of the "Prohibited Area" within 40 feet of any entrance to the polling place. However, and notwithstanding the provisions of clause (i) of subsection A of § 24.2-604, and upon the approval of the local electoral board, campaign materials may be distributed outside the polling place and inside the structure where the election is conducted, provided that the "Prohibited Area" (i) includes the area within the structure that is beyond 40 feet of any entrance to the polling place and the area within the structure that is within 40 feet of any entrance to the room where the election is conducted and (ii) is maintained and enforced as provided in § 24.2-604. The local electoral board may approve campaigning activities inside the building where the election is conducted when an entrance to the building is from an adjoining building, or if establishing the 40-foot prohibited area outside the polling place would hinder or delay a qualified voter from entering or leaving the building.

F. Any local government, local electoral board, or the State Board may make monetary grants to any non-governmental entity furnishing facilities under the provisions of § 24.2-307 or 24.2-308 for use as a polling place. Such grants shall be made for the sole purpose of meeting the accessibility requirements of this section. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to obligate any local government, local electoral board, or the State Board to appropriate funds to any non-governmental entity.

Code 1950, §§ 24-45, 24-46, 24-171, 24-179 through 24-181; 1954, c. 375; 1956, c. 378; 1962, cc. 185, 536; 1970, c. 462, §§ 24.1-36, 24.1-37, 24.1-92, 24.1-97; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 119; 1976, c. 616; 1977, c. 30; 1978, c. 778; 1980, c. 639; 1981, c. 425; 1984, c. 217; 1985, c. 197; 1986, c. 558; 1992, c. 445; 1993, cc. 546, 641; 1994, c. 307; 2003, c. 1015; 2004, c. 25; 2005, c. 340; 2008, cc. 113, 394; 2010, cc. 639, 707; 2012, cc. 488, 759; 2016, cc. 18, 492.

§ 24.2-310.1. Polling places; additional requirement.

The requirement stated in this section shall be in addition to requirements stated in §§ 24.2-307, 24.2-308, and 24.2-310, including the requirement that polling places be located in public buildings whenever practical. No polling place shall be located in a building which serves primarily as the headquarters, office, or assembly building for any private organization, other than an organization of a civic, educational, religious, charitable, historical, patriotic, cultural, or similar nature, unless the State Board has approved the use of the building because no other building meeting the accessibility requirements of this title is available.

1993, c. 904, § 24.1-37.1; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-452. Definitions.

As used in this chapter, unless the context requires a different meaning:

1. "Covered voter" means:

a. A uniformed-service voter or an overseas voter who is registered to vote in this state;

b. A uniformed-service voter defined in subdivision 9 a whose voting residence is in this state and who otherwise satisfies this state's voter eligibility requirements;

c. An overseas voter who, before leaving the United States, was last eligible to vote in this state and, except for a state residency requirement, otherwise satisfies this state's voter eligibility requirements;

d. An overseas voter who, before leaving the United States, would have been last eligible to vote in this state had the voter then been of voting age and, except for a state residency requirement, otherwise satisfies this state's voter eligibility requirements; or

e. An overseas voter who was born outside the United States, is not described in subdivision c or d, and, except for a state residency requirement, otherwise satisfies this state's voter eligibility requirements, if:

(1) The last place where a parent or legal guardian of the voter was, or under this chapter would have been, eligible to vote before leaving the United States is within this state; and

(2) The voter has not previously registered to vote in any other state.

2. "Dependent" means an individual recognized as a dependent by a uniformed service.

3. "Federal postcard application" means the application prescribed under § 101(b)(2) of the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act, 52 U.S.C. § 20301(b)(2).

4. "Federal write-in absentee ballot" means the ballot described in § 103 of the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act, 52 U.S.C. § 20303, that may be used in all elections in which the voter is eligible to vote as provided in § 24.2-702.1.

5. "Military-overseas ballot" means:

a. A federal write-in absentee ballot;

b. A ballot specifically prepared or distributed for use by a covered voter in accordance with this title; or

c. A ballot cast by a covered voter in accordance with this title.

6. "Overseas voter" means a United States citizen who is outside the United States.

7. "State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

8. "Uniformed service" means:

a. Active and reserve components of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard of the United States;

b. The Merchant Marine, the commissioned corps of the Public Health Service, or the commissioned corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States; or

c. The Virginia National Guard.

9. "Uniformed-service voter" means an individual who is qualified to vote and is:

a. A member of the active or reserve components of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard of the United States who is on active duty;

b. A member of the Merchant Marine, the commissioned corps of the Public Health Service, or the commissioned corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States;

c. A member on activated status of the National Guard; or

d. A spouse or dependent of a member referred to in this definition.

10. "United States," used in the territorial sense, means the several states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, and any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

2012, c. 353; 2015, c. 313; 2019, cc. 668, 669; 2020, cc. 1149, 1151, 1201.

§ 24.2-453. Restriction of ballot eligibility.

To be eligible to vote in state and local elections, the application of an overseas voter who has given up his place of abode in Virginia must show that the applicant is employed overseas or the spouse or dependent of a person employed overseas.

2012, c. 353.

§ 24.2-454. Elections covered.

The voting procedures in this chapter apply to:

1. A general, special, or primary election for federal office;

2. A general, special, or primary election for statewide or state legislative office or state referendum measure; and

3. A general, special, or primary election for local constitutional or government office or local referendum measure conducted under Chapter 6 (§ 24.2-600 et seq.) for which absentee voting is available for other voters.

2012, c. 353.

§ 24.2-455. Role of Commissioner of Elections.

A. The Commissioner of Elections is the state official responsible for implementing this chapter and Virginia's responsibilities under the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act, 52 U.S.C. § 20301 et seq.

B. The Commissioner shall make available to covered voters information regarding voter registration procedures for covered voters and procedures for casting military-overseas ballots. The Commissioner may delegate the responsibility under this subsection only to the state office designated in compliance with § 102(b)(1) of the Uniformed and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act, 52 U.S.C. § 20302(b)(1).

C. The Commissioner shall coordinate with local electoral boards to establish an appropriate system through which a covered voter may apply for and receive voter registration materials, military-overseas ballots, and other information under this chapter.

D. The Commissioner shall:

1. Develop standardized absentee-voting materials, including privacy and transmission envelopes, authentication materials, and voting instructions to be used with the military-overseas ballot of a voter authorized to vote in any jurisdiction in this state; and

2. To the extent reasonably possible, coordinate with other states to carry out this subsection.

E. The Commissioner shall prescribe the form and content of a declaration for use by a covered voter to swear or affirm specific representations pertaining to the voter's identity, eligibility to vote, status as a covered voter, and timely and proper completion of an overseas-military ballot. The declaration must be based on the declaration prescribed to accompany a federal write-in absentee ballot, as modified to be consistent with this chapter. The Commissioner shall ensure that a form for the execution of the declaration, including an indication of the date of execution of the declaration, is a prominent part of all balloting materials for which the declaration is required.

2012, c. 353; 2013, c. 542.

§ 24.2-456. Overseas voter's registration address.

In registering to vote, an overseas voter who is eligible to vote in this state shall use and must be assigned to the voting precinct of the address of the last place of residence of the voter in this state or, in the case of a voter described by subdivision 1 e of § 24.2-452, the address of the last place of residence in this state of the parent or legal guardian of the voter. If that address is no longer a recognized residential address, the voter must be assigned an address for voting purposes.

2012, c. 353.

§ 24.2-457. Methods of registering to vote.

A. To apply to register to vote, in addition to any other approved method, a covered voter may use a federal postcard application.

B. A covered voter may use the declaration accompanying a federal write-in absentee ballot to apply to register to vote simultaneously with the submission of the federal write-in absentee ballot, if the declaration is received by the applicable deadline for registration. If the declaration is received after that date, it must be treated as an application to register to vote for subsequent elections.

C. The electoral board shall ensure that the system described in subsection C of § 24.2-455 is capable of accepting both a federal postcard application and any other approved registration application sent to the appropriate election official. The voter may use the system or any other approved method to register to vote.

2012, c. 353.

§ 24.2-458. Methods of applying for military-overseas ballot.

A. A covered voter who is registered to vote in this state may apply for a military-overseas ballot using either the regular absentee ballot application in use in the voter's jurisdiction under Chapter 7 (§ 24.2-700 et seq.) or the federal postcard application.

B. A covered voter who is not registered to vote in this state may use a federal postcard application to apply simultaneously to register to vote under § 24.2-457 and for a military-overseas ballot.

C. The electoral board shall ensure that the system described in subsection C of § 24.2-455 is capable of accepting the submission of both a federal postcard application and any other approved military-overseas ballot application sent to the appropriate election official. The voter may use the system or any other approved method to apply for a military-overseas ballot.

D. A covered voter may use the declaration accompanying a federal write-in absentee ballot as an application for a military-overseas ballot simultaneously with the submission of the federal write-in absentee ballot.

E. To receive the benefits of this chapter, a covered voter must inform the appropriate election official that the voter is a covered voter. Methods of informing the appropriate election official that a voter is a covered voter include:

1. The use of a federal postcard application or federal write-in absentee ballot;

2. The use of an overseas address on an approved voter registration application or ballot application; and

3. The inclusion on an approved voter registration application or ballot application of other information sufficient to identify the voter as a covered voter.

F. This chapter does not preclude a covered voter from voting under Chapter 7 (§ 24.2-700 et seq.).

2012, c. 353.

§ 24.2-459. Timeliness and scope of application for military-overseas ballot.

An application for a military-overseas ballot is timely if received by the seventh day before the election or the last day for other voters in this state to apply for an absentee ballot for that election. An application for a military-overseas ballot for a primary election, whether or not timely, is effective as an application for a military-overseas ballot for the general election.

2012, c. 353.

§ 24.2-460. Transmission of unvoted ballots.

A. For an election described in § 24.2-454 for which this state has not received a waiver pursuant to § 579 of the Military and Overseas Voter Empowerment Act, 52 U.S.C. § 20302(g)(2), not later than 45 days before the election, the election official in each jurisdiction charged with distributing a ballot and balloting materials shall transmit a ballot and balloting materials to all covered voters who by that date submit a valid military-overseas ballot application.

B. A covered voter may request that a ballot and balloting materials be sent to the voter as authorized in § 24.2-706.

C. If a ballot application from a covered voter arrives after the jurisdiction begins transmitting ballots and balloting materials to voters, the official charged with distributing a ballot and balloting materials shall transmit them to the voter not later than three business days after the application arrives.

2012, c. 353.

§ 24.2-461. Federal write-in absentee ballot.

A covered voter may use a federal write-in absentee ballot to vote for all offices and ballot measures in an election described in § 24.2-454.

2012, c. 353.

§ 24.2-462. Receipt of voted ballot.

A valid military-overseas ballot must be counted if it is delivered to the address that the appropriate state or local election office has specified by the close of the polls on the date of the election except as provided in § 24.2-709.

2012, c. 353.

§ 24.2-462. Receipt of voted ballot.

A valid military-overseas ballot must be counted if it is delivered to the address that the appropriate state or local election office has specified by the close of the polls on the date of the election except as provided in § 24.2-709.

2012, c. 353.

§ 24.2-463. Declaration.

A military-overseas ballot must include or be accompanied by a declaration signed by the voter that a material misstatement of fact in completing the ballot may be grounds for a conviction of perjury under the laws of the United States or this state.

2012, c. 353.

§ 24.2-464. Confirmation of receipt of application and voted ballot.

The Commissioner, in coordination with local election officials, shall implement a free-access system by which a covered voter may determine whether:

1. The voter's federal postcard application or other registration or military-overseas ballot application has been received and accepted; and

2. The voter's military-overseas ballot has been received and the current status of the ballot.

2012, c. 353; 2013, c. 542.

§ 24.2-400. Persons entitled to register and vote.

Any person who is not registered to vote, but would otherwise be a qualified voter, is entitled to register to vote as provided in this chapter. Any person who is registered to vote and is a qualified voter shall be entitled to vote in the precinct where he resides.

Code 1950, §§ 24-17, 24-22, 24-23; 1963, Ex. Sess., c. 2; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-41; 1971, Ex. Sess., cc. 205, 265; 1974, c. 428; 1977, c. 490; 1978, c. 778; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-401. Persons moving from precinct.

A person who is qualified to vote except for having moved his residence from one precinct to another within the Commonwealth may vote in the precinct from which he has moved in the following November general election and any intervening election unless his registration has been transferred or cancelled as provided in this chapter. In addition, a person may continue to vote in the precinct from which he has moved through the ensuing second general election for federal office, provided that (i) he has moved his residence from one precinct to another in the same registrar's jurisdiction and the same congressional district; (ii) he has failed to respond to the notice provided in § 24.2-428; (iii) his registration has not been transferred or cancelled as provided in this chapter; and (iv) he has affirmed orally or in writing his new address before an officer of election at the polling place.

Code 1950, §§ 24-17, 24-22, 24-23; 1963, Ex. Sess., c. 2; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-41; 1971, Ex. Sess., cc. 205, 265; 1974, c. 428; 1977, c. 490; 1978, c. 778; 1993, c. 641; 1996, cc. 72, 73; 1997, c. 346.

§ 24.2-402. Persons moving from Commonwealth fewer than thirty days before presidential election.

A person who is qualified to vote except for having moved his residence from the Commonwealth after the thirtieth day preceding a presidential election may vote in the precinct from which he has moved only in that election and only for electors of President and Vice President of the United States.

The officers of election shall deliver to any person who asks to vote under this section the paper ballot for electors of President and Vice President of the United States and no other ballot. The ballot shall be voted, handled, and counted with other like ballots in accordance with the provisions of this title.

Code 1950, §§ 24-17, 24-22, 24-23; 1963, Ex. Sess., c. 2; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-41; 1971, Ex. Sess., cc. 119, 205, 265, § 24.1-41.1; 1974, c. 428; 1977, c. 490; 1978, c. 778; 1993, c. 641.

§ 24.2-403. Persons under 18 years of age.

Any person who is otherwise qualified and will be 18 years of age on or before the day of the next general election shall be permitted to register in advance and also vote in any intervening primary or special election. Notwithstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, any person who is otherwise qualified and will be 18 years of age on or before the day of the next November general presidential election shall be permitted to register in advance of and also vote in any intervening presidential primary and any other primary held on the same day as the presidential primary.

Code 1950, §§ 24-17, 24-22, 24-23; 1963, Ex. Sess., c. 2; 1970, c. 462, § 24.1-41; 1971, Ex. Sess., cc. 205, 265; 1974, c. 428; 1977, c. 490; 1978, c. 778; 1993, c. 641; 2004, c. 481; 2006, c. 205.

§ 24.2-403.1. (Effective October 1, 2022) Preregistration of persons 16 years of age or older.

Any person who is otherwise qualified and is 16 years of age or older, but who will not be 18 years of age on or before the day of the next general election, may preregister to vote. This preregistration shall not entitle a person 16 years of age or older to vote in any election except as provided in § 24.2-403.

2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 217.

§ 24.2-404. (Effective until October 1, 2022) Duties of Department of Elections.

A. The Department of Elections shall provide for the continuing operation and maintenance of a central recordkeeping system, the Virginia voter registration system, for all voters registered in the Commonwealth.

In order to operate and maintain the system, the Department shall:

1. Maintain a complete, separate, and accurate record of all registered voters in the Commonwealth.

2. Require the general registrars to enter the names of all registered voters into the system and to change or correct registration records as necessary.

3. Provide to each general registrar voter confirmation documents for newly registered voters and for notice to registered voters on the system of changes and corrections in their registration records and polling places.

4. Require the general registrars to delete from the record of registered voters the name of any voter who (i) is deceased, (ii) is no longer qualified to vote in the county or city where he is registered due to removal of his residence, (iii) has been convicted of a felony, (iv) has been adjudicated incapacitated, (v) is known not to be a United States citizen by reason of reports from the Department of Motor Vehicles pursuant to § 24.2-410.1 or from the Department of Elections based on information received from the Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements Program (SAVE Program) pursuant to subsection E, or (vi) is otherwise no longer qualified to vote as may be provided by law. Such action shall be taken no later than 30 days after notification from the Department. The Department shall promptly provide the information referred to in this subdivision, upon receiving it, to general registrars.

5. Retain on the system for four years a separate record for registered voters whose names have been deleted, with the reason for deletion.

6. Retain on the system permanently a separate record for information received regarding deaths, felony convictions, and adjudications of incapacity pursuant to §§ 24.2-408 through 24.2-410.

7. Provide to each general registrar, at least 16 days prior to a general or primary election and three days prior to a special election, an alphabetical list of all registered voters in each precinct or portion of a precinct in which the election is being held in the county, city, or town. These precinct lists shall be used as the official lists of qualified voters and shall constitute the pollbooks. The Department shall provide instructions for the division of the pollbooks and precinct lists into sections to accommodate the efficient processing of voter lines at the polls. Prior to any general, primary, or special election, the Department shall provide any general registrar, upon his request, with a separate electronic list of all registered voters in the registrar's county or city. If electronic pollbooks are used in the locality or electronic voter registration inquiry devices are used in precincts in the locality, the Department shall provide a regional or statewide list of registered voters to the general registrar of the locality. The Department shall determine whether regional or statewide data is provided. Neither the pollbook nor the regional or statewide list of registered voters shall include the day and month of birth of the voter, but shall include the voter's year of birth.

8. Acquire by purchase, lease, or contract equipment necessary to execute the duties of the Department.

9. Use any source of information that may assist in carrying out the purposes of this section. All agencies of the Commonwealth shall cooperate with the Department in procuring and exchanging identification information for the purpose of maintaining the voter registration system. The Department may share any information that it receives from another agency of the Commonwealth with any Chief Election Officer of another state for the maintenance of the voter registration system.

10. Cooperate with other states and jurisdictions to develop systems to compare voters, voter history, and voter registration lists to ensure the accuracy of the voter registration rolls, to identify voters whose addresses have changed, to prevent duplication of registration in more than one state or jurisdiction, and to determine eligibility of individuals to vote in Virginia.

11. Reprint and impose a reasonable charge for the sale of any part of Title 24.2, lists of precincts and polling places, statements of election results by precinct, and any other items required of the Department by law. Receipts from such sales shall be credited to the Board for reimbursement of printing expenses.

B. The Department shall be authorized to provide for the production, distribution, and receipt of information and lists through the Virginia voter registration system by any appropriate means including, but not limited to, paper and electronic means. The Virginia Freedom of Information Act (§ 2.2-3700 et seq.) shall not apply to records about individuals maintained in this system.

C. The State Board shall institute procedures to ensure that each requirement of this section is fulfilled. As part of its procedures, the State Board shall provide that the general registrar shall mail notice of any cancellation pursuant to clause (v) of subdivision A 4 to the person whose registration is cancelled.

D. The State Board shall promulgate rules and regulations to ensure the uniform application of the law for determining a person's residence.

E. The Department shall apply to participate in the Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements Program (SAVE Program) operated by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security for the purposes of verifying that voters listed in the Virginia voter registration system are United States citizens. Upon approval of the application, the Department shall enter into any required memorandum of agreement with U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. The State Board shall promulgate rules and regulations governing the use of the immigration status and citizenship status information received from the SAVE Program.

F. The Department shall report annually by October 1 for the preceding 12 months ending August 31 to the Committees on Privileges and Elections on each of its activities undertaken to maintain the Virginia voter registration system and the results of those activities. The Department's report shall be governed by the provisions of § 2.2-608 and shall encompass activities undertaken pursuant to subdivisions A 9 and 10 and subsection E and pursuant to §§ 24.2-404.3, 24.2-404.4, 24.2-408, 24.2-409, 24.2-409.1, 24.2-410, 24.2-410.1, 24.2-427, and 24.2-428. This report shall contain the methodology used in gathering and analyzing the data. The Commissioner of Elections shall certify that the data included in the report is accurate and reliable.

1970, c. 462, § 24.1-23; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 119; 1972, c. 620; 1973, c. 30; 1974, cc. 369, 428; 1975, c. 515; 1976, c. 616; 1978, c. 778; 1983, c. 348; 1993, c. 641; 1997, c. 801; 2000, cc. 510, 554; 2003, c. 1015; 2004, c. 428; 2005, c. 378; 2006, cc. 243, 926, 940; 2008, c. 379; 2009, cc. 865, 870, 874; 2011, c. 528; 2012, c. 686; 2013, cc. 425, 686, 725; 2014, c. 452; 2015, c. 740; 2018, c. 460; 2020, cc. 1064, 1065.

§ 24.2-404. (Effective October 1, 2022) Duties of Department of Elections.

A. The Department of Elections shall provide for the continuing operation and maintenance of a central recordkeeping system, the Virginia voter registration system, for all voters registered in the Commonwealth.

In order to operate and maintain the system, the Department shall:

1. Maintain a complete, separate, and accurate record of all registered voters in the Commonwealth. Such system shall automatically register a person who has preregistered pursuant to § 24.2-403.1 upon that person becoming eligible for registration under § 24.2-403 or reaching 18 years of age, whichever comes first.

2. Require the general registrars to enter the names of all registered voters into the system and to change or correct registration records as necessary.

3. Provide to each general registrar voter confirmation documents for newly registered voters, including voters who were automatically registered pursuant to subdivision 1, and for notice to registered voters on the system of changes and corrections in their registration records and polling places.

4. Require the general registrars to delete from the record of registered voters the name of any voter who (i) is deceased, (ii) is no longer qualified to vote in the county or city where he is registered due to removal of his residence, (iii) has been convicted of a felony, (iv) has been adjudicated incapacitated, (v) is known not to be a United States citizen by reason of reports from the Department of Motor Vehicles pursuant to § 24.2-410.1 or from the Department of Elections based on information received from the Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements Program (SAVE Program) pursuant to subsection E, or (vi) is otherwise no longer qualified to vote as may be provided by law. Such action shall be taken no later than 30 days after notification from the Department. The Department shall promptly provide the information referred to in this subdivision, upon receiving it, to general registrars.

5. Retain on the system for four years a separate record for registered voters whose names have been deleted, with the reason for deletion.

6. Retain on the system permanently a separate record for information received regarding deaths, felony convictions, and adjudications of incapacity pursuant to §§ 24.2-408 through 24.2-410.

7. Provide to each general registrar, at least 16 days prior to a general or primary election and three days prior to a special election, an alphabetical list of all registered voters in each precinct or portion of a precinct in which the election is being held in the county, city, or town. These precinct lists shall be used as the official lists of qualified voters and shall constitute the pollbooks. The Department shall provide instructions for the division of the pollbooks and precinct lists into sections to accommodate the efficient processing of voter lines at the polls. Prior to any general, primary, or special election, the Department shall provide any general registrar, upon his request, with a separate electronic list of all registered voters in the registrar's county or city. If electronic pollbooks are used in the locality or electronic voter registration inquiry devices are used in precincts in the locality, the Department shall provide a regional or statewide list of registered voters to the general registrar of the locality. The Department shall determine whether regional or statewide data is provided. Neither the pollbook nor the regional or statewide list of registered voters shall include the day and month of birth of the voter, but shall include the voter's year of birth.

8. Acquire by purchase, lease, or contract equipment necessary to execute the duties of the Department.

9. Use any source of information that may assist in carrying out the purposes of this section. All agencies of the Commonwealth shall cooperate with the Department in procuring and exchanging identification information for the purpose of maintaining the voter registration system. The Department may share any information that it receives from another agency of the Commonwealth with any Chief Election Officer of another state for the maintenance of the voter registration system.

10. Cooperate with other states and jurisdictions to develop systems to compare voters, voter history, and voter registration lists to ensure the accuracy of the voter registration rolls, to identify voters whose addresses have changed, to prevent duplication of registration in more than one state or jurisdiction, and to determine eligibility of individuals to vote in Virginia.

11. Reprint and impose a reasonable charge for the sale of any part of Title 24.2, lists of precincts and polling places, statements of election results by precinct, and any other items required of the Department by law. Receipts from such sales shall be credited to the Board for reimbursement of printing expenses.

B. The Department shall be authorized to provide for the production, distribution, and receipt of information and lists through the Virginia voter registration system by any appropriate means including, but not limited to, paper and electronic means. The Virginia Freedom of Information Act (§ 2.2-3700 et seq.) shall not apply to records about individuals maintained in this system.

C. The State Board shall institute procedures to ensure that each requirement of this section is fulfilled. As part of its procedures, the State Board shall provide that the general registrar shall mail notice of any cancellation pursuant to clause (v) of subdivision A 4 to the person whose registration is cancelled.

D. The State Board shall promulgate rules and regulations to ensure the uniform application of the law for determining a person's residence.

E. The Department shall apply to participate in the Systematic Alien Verification for Entitlements Program (SAVE Program) operated by U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security for the purposes of verifying that voters listed in the Virginia voter registration system are United States citizens. Upon approval of the application, the Department shall enter into any required memorandum of agreement with U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. The State Board shall promulgate rules and regulations governing the use of the immigration status and citizenship status information received from the SAVE Program.

F. The Department shall report annually by October 1 for the preceding 12 months ending August 31 to the Committees on Privileges and Elections on each of its activities undertaken to maintain the Virginia voter registration system and the results of those activities. The Department's report shall be governed by the provisions of § 2.2-608 and shall encompass activities undertaken pursuant to subdivisions A 9 and 10 and subsection E and pursuant to §§ 24.2-404.3, 24.2-404.4, 24.2-408, 24.2-409, 24.2-409.1, 24.2-410, 24.2-410.1, 24.2-427, and 24.2-428. This report shall contain the methodology used in gathering and analyzing the data. The Commissioner of Elections shall certify that the data included in the report is accurate and reliable.

1970, c. 462, § 24.1-23; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 119; 1972, c. 620; 1973, c. 30; 1974, cc. 369, 428; 1975, c. 515; 1976, c. 616; 1978, c. 778; 1983, c. 348; 1993, c. 641; 1997, c. 801; 2000, cc. 510, 554; 2003, c. 1015; 2004, c. 428; 2005, c. 378; 2006, cc. 243, 926, 940; 2008, c. 379; 2009, cc. 865, 870, 874; 2011, c. 528; 2012, c. 686; 2013, cc. 425, 686, 725; 2014, c. 452; 2015, c. 740; 2018, c. 460; 2020, cc. 1064, 1065; 2021, Sp. Sess. I, c. 217.

§ 24.2-404.1. Commissioner of Elections to serve as state coordinator for the administration of the National Voter Registration Act.

The Commissioner of Elections shall be the chief state election officer responsible for the coordination of state responsibilities under the National Voter Registration Act (52 U.S.C. § 20501 et seq.).

1996, cc. 72, 73; 2013, c. 542.

§ 24.2-404.3. Duty of Department of Elections; verification of registered voter lists.

On or before October 1 of each year, the Department shall conduct a match of the Virginia registered voter lists with the list of deceased persons maintained by the Social Security Administration.

2009, c. 492; 2015, c. 740.

§ 24.2-404.4. Exchange of registered voter lists with other states.

A. Pursuant to its authority under subsection A of § 24.2-405 and subsections B and C of § 24.2-406, the Department of Elections shall request voter registration information and lists of persons voting at primaries and elections, if available, from the states bordering the Commonwealth to identify duplicate registrations, voters who no longer reside in the Commonwealth, and other persons who are no longer entitled to be registered in order to maintain the overall accuracy of the voter registration system.

B. Pursuant to its authority under subdivision A 10 of § 24.2-404, the Department of Elections shall utilize data regarding voter registration and lists of persons voting at primaries and elections received through list comparisons with other states to identify duplicate registrations, voters who no longer reside in the Commonwealth, and other persons who are no longer entitled to be registered in order to maintain the overall accuracy of the voter registration system.

C. The Department shall compare the data received pursuant to subsections A and B with the state voter registration list and initiate list maintenance procedures under applicable state and federal law. The Department shall include in its report to the House and Senate Committees on Privileges and Elections, required by subsection F of § 24.2-404, the progress of activities conducted under this section, including the number of duplicate registrations found to exist and the procedures that the Department and general registrars are following to eliminate duplicate registrations from the Virginia registered voter lists.

2013, c. 435; 2015, cc. 713, 740; 2018, c. 460.

§ 24.2-405. Lists of registered voters.

A. The Department of Elections shall provide, at a reasonable price, lists of registered voters for their districts to (i) candidates for election or political party nomination to further their candidacy, (ii) political party committees or officials thereof for political purposes only, (iii) political action committees that have filed a current statement of organization with the Department of Elections pursuant to § 24.2-949.2, or with the Federal Elections Commission pursuant to federal law, for political purposes only, (iv) incumbent officeholders to report to their constituents, (v) nonprofit organizations that promote voter participation and registration for that purpose only, and (vi) commissioners of the revenue, as defined in § 58.1-3100, and treasurers, as defined in § 58.1-3123, for tax assessment, collection, and enforcement purposes. The Department shall provide, at no charge, the courts of the Commonwealth and the United States with the lists for their districts for jury selection purposes no more than two times in a 12-month period and shall provide, at a reasonable price, such lists any other time in that same 12-month period. The lists shall be furnished to no one else and used for no other purpose. However, the Department of Elections is authorized to furnish information from the voter registration system to general registrars for their official use and to the Department of Motor Vehicles and other appropriate state agencies for maintenance of the voter registration system, and to the Chief Election Officers of other states for maintenance of voter registration systems.

B. The Department of Elections shall furnish, at a reasonable price, lists of the addresses of registered voters for their localities to local government census liaisons and their staffs for the sole purpose of providing address information to the United States Bureau of the Census. The Department of Elections shall also furnish, at a reasonable price, such lists to the Clerk of the Senate and the Clerk of the House of Delegates for the sole purpose of maintaining a database of constituent addresses for the General Assembly. The information authorized under this subsection shall be furnished to no other person and used for no other purpose. No list furnished under this subsection shall contain the name of any registered voter. For the purpose of this subsection, the term "census liaison" shall have the meaning provided in 13 U.S.C. § 16.

C. In no event shall any list furnished under this section contain the social security number, or any part thereof, of any registered voter except a list furnished to a court of the Commonwealth or of the United States for jury selection purposes, a commissioner of the revenue or a treasurer for tax assessment, collection, and enforcement purposes, or to the Chief Election Officer of another state permitted to use social security numbers, or any parts thereof, that provides for the use of such numbers on applications for voter registration in accordance with federal law, for maintenance of voter registration systems.

D. Any list furnished under subsection A shall contain the post office box address in lieu of the residence street address for any individual who has furnished at the time of registration or subsequently, in addition to his street address, a post office box address pursuant to subsection B of § 24.2-418.

1970, c. 462, § 24.1-23; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 119; 1972, c. 620; 1973, c. 30; 1974, cc. 369, 428; 1975, c. 515; 1976, c. 616; 1978, c. 778; 1983, c. 348; 1993, cc. 144, 641; 1994, cc. 250, 656; 1995, c. 314; 1996, c. 251; 1999, c. 843; 2000, cc. 512, 556; 2001, cc. 612, 626; 2003, c. 1015; 2004, cc. 184, 410; 2006, cc. 787, 892; 2007, c. 318; 2009, c. 318; 2010, c. 452; 2015, c. 712; 2020, cc. 290, 369.

§ 24.2-406. Lists of persons voting at elections.

A. The Department of Elections shall furnish, at a reasonable price, lists of persons who voted at any primary, special, or general election held in the four preceding years to (i) candidates for election or political party nomination to further their candidacy, (ii) political party committees or officials thereof for political purposes only, (iii) political action committees that have filed a current statement of organization with the Department of Elections pursuant to § 24.2-949.2 or with the Federal Elections Commission pursuant to federal law, for political purposes only, (iv) incumbent officeholders to report to their constituents, and (v) members of the public or a nonprofit organization seeking to promote voter participation and registration by means of a communication or mailing without intimidation or pressure exerted on the recipient, for that purpose only. Such lists shall be furnished to no one else and shall be used only for campaign and political purposes and for reporting to constituents. Unless such lists are not available due to a pending recount or election contest, the general registrar shall submit the list of persons who voted to the Department of Elections within 14 days after each election. The general registrars of localities using nonelectronic pollbooks shall submit the list of persons who voted to the Department of Elections within seven days after the pollbooks are released from the possession of the clerk of court. The Department of Elections shall make available such lists no later than seven days after receiving them from the general registrar.

B. The Department of Elections shall furnish to the Chief Election Officer of another state, on request and at a reasonable price, lists of persons who voted at any primary, special, or general election held for the four preceding years. Such lists shall be used only for the purpose of maintenance of voter registration systems and shall be transmitted in accordance with security policies approved by the State Board of Elections.

C. In no event shall any list furnished under this section contain the social security number, or any part thereof, of any registered voter, except for a list furnished to the Chief Election Officer of another state permitted to use social security numbers, or any parts thereof, that provides for the use of such numbers on applications for voter registration in accordance with federal law, for maintenance of voter registration systems.

D. Any list furnished under this section shall contain the post office box address in lieu of the residence street address for any individual who has furnished at the time of registration or subsequently, in addition to his street address, a post office box address pursuant to subsection B of § 24.2-418.

1970, c. 462, § 24.1-23; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 119; 1972, c. 620; 1973, c. 30; 1974, cc. 369, 428; 1975, c. 515; 1976, c. 616; 1978, c. 778; 1983, c. 348; 1993, cc. 144, 641; 1994, c. 250; 1995, c. 314; 1996, c. 251; 2001, cc. 612, 626; 2003, c. 1015; 2004, cc. 184, 410; 2007, c. 318; 2009, c. 318; 2012, c. 664; 2013, c. 446; 2015, c. 712; 2016, cc. 18, 492.

§ 24.2-407. Statement for persons receiving lists of persons registered or voting; penalties.

Any person receiving lists pursuant to § 24.2-405, 24.2-406, 24.2-706, or 24.2-710 shall sign the following statement:

"I understand that the lists requested are the property of the State Board of Elections of the Commonwealth of Virginia, and I hereby state or agree, subject to felony penalties for making false statements pursuant to § 24.2-1016, that (i) I am a person authorized by § 24.2-405, 24.2-406, 24.2-706, or 24.2-710 of the Code of Virginia to receive a copy of the lists described; (ii) the lists will be used only for the purposes prescribed and for no other use; and (iii) I will not permit the use or copying of the lists by persons not authorized by the Code of Virginia to obtain them.

Signature of Purchaser ______________________________."

1970, c. 462, § 24.1-23; 1971, Ex. Sess., c. 119; 1972, c. 620; 1973, c. 30; 1974, cc. 369, 428; 1975, c. 515; 1976, c. 616; 1978, c. 778; 1983, c. 348; 1993, c. 641; 2010, c. 812.

§ 24.2-407.1. Prohibition on disclosure of social security numbers or parts thereof.

It shall be unlawful for any person who has obtained, under § 24.2-405 or 24.2-406 or any prior law, a list of persons registered or voting which contained social security numbers, or any parts thereof, to disclose any voter's social security number, or any part thereof, to any other person. Any person maintaining a system containing social security numbers, or any parts thereof, obtained from the Board or the Department of Elections shall delete or destroy the portion of his records containing those numbers, except for a list furnished to a court of the Commonwealth or of the United States for jury selection purposes, a commissioner of the revenue, as defined in § 58.1-3100, or a treasurer, as defined in § 58.1-3123, for tax assessment, collection, and enforcement purposes, or the Chief Election Officer of another state, permitted to use social security numbers, or any parts thereof, that provides for the use of such numbers on applications for voter registration in accordance with federal law, for the purpose of matching voter registration lists.

1994, c. 656; 2007, c. 318; 2010, c. 452; 2015, c. 712.

§ 24.2-408. State Registrar of Vital Records to transmit monthly lists of decedents to Department of Elections.

The State Registrar of Vital Records shall transmit to the Department of Elections by electronic means a monthly list of all persons of the age of seventeen years or more who shall have died in the Commonwealth subsequent to its previous monthly list. The lists shall be in a format specified by the Department and shall contain the deceased's name; address; county, city, or town of residence; social security number, if any; and date and place of his birth and of his death. The Department shall maintain a permanent record of the information in the lists as part of the voter registration system. The general registrars shall have access to the information in the lists to carry out their duties pursuant to § 24.2-427. Information in the lists shall be confidential and consistent with the requirements of § 32.1-271.

1970, c. 462, § 24.1-25; 1972, c. 620; 1975, c. 515; 1993, c. 641; 1999, c. 117; 2015, c. 740.

§ 24.2-409. Central Criminal Records Exchange to transmit lists of felony convictions to Department of Elections.

The Central Criminal Records Exchange shall transmit to the Department of Elections by electronic means (i) a monthly list of all persons convicted of a felony during the preceding month and (ii) an annual list of all persons who have been convicted of a felony, regardless of when the conviction occurred. The list shall be in a format mutually agreed upon by the Commissioner of Elections and the Department of State Police and shall contain the convicted person's name; address; county, city, or town of residence; social security number, if any; date and place of birth; and date of conviction. The Department shall maintain a permanent record of the information in the lists as part of the voter registration system. Upon receipt of the monthly list, the Department shall compare, on a monthly basis, the contents of the list to the list of all registered voters maintained on the voter registration system and shall notify the appropriate general registrar of the felony conviction of any registered voter. Upon receipt of the annual list, the Department shall compare the contents of the list to the list of all registered voters maintained on the voter registration system and shall notify the appropriate general registrar of the felony conviction of any registered voter. The general registrars shall have access to the information in the lists to carry out their duties pursuant to § 24.2-427.

1970, c. 462, § 24.1-26; 1972, c. 620; 1975, c. 515; 1993, c. 641; 1999, c. 117; 2013, c. 491; 2015, c. 740.

§ 24.2-409.1. Department of Elections to transmit information pertaining to persons convicted of a felony in federal court.

Upon receipt of a notice of a felony conviction sent by a United States attorney pursuant to the National Voter Registration Act (52 U.S.C. § 20501 et seq.), the Department shall notify the appropriate general registrar of the conviction.

1996, cc. 72, 73; 2015, c. 740.

§ 24.2-410. Clerks of circuit courts to furnish lists of certain adjudications.

The clerk of each circuit court shall furnish monthly to the Department of Elections a complete list of all persons adjudicated incapacitated pursuant to Chapter 20 (§ 64.2-2000 et seq.) of Title 64.2 or whose incapacity has been recognized pursuant to § 64.2-2115, and therefore "mentally incompetent" for purposes of this title unless the court order specifically provides otherwise, during the preceding month or a statement that no adjudications have occurred that month. The list shall contain each such person's name; address; county, city, or town of residence; social security number, if any; date and place of birth; and date of adjudication. The Commissioner of Elections and the Executive Secretary shall determine the procedure for furnishing such lists, which may be by electronic means. The Department shall transmit the information from the list to the appropriate general registrars.

1976, c. 616, § 24.1-26.1; 1993, c. 641; 1998, c. 582; 2011, c. 518; 2015, c. 740.

§ 24.2-410.1. Citizenship status; Department of Motor Vehicles to furnish lists of noncitizens.

A. The Department of Motor Vehicles shall include on the application for any document, or renewal thereof, issued pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 3 (§ 46.2-300 et seq.) of Title 46.2 a statement asking the applicant if he is a United States citizen. Information on citizenship status shall not be a determinative factor for the issuance of any document pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 3 (§ 46.2-300 et seq.) of Title 46.2.

The Department of Motor Vehicles shall furnish monthly to the Department of Elections a complete list of all persons who have indicated a noncitizen status to the Department of Motor Vehicles in obtaining any document, or renewal thereof, issued pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 3 (§ 46.2-300 et seq.) of Title 46.2. The Department of Elections shall transmit the information from the list to the appropriate general registrars. Information in the lists shall be confidential and available only for official use by the Department of Elections and general registrars.

B. For the purposes of this section, the Department of Motor Vehicles is not responsible for verifying the claim of any applicant who indicates United States citizen status when applying for any document, or renewal thereof, issued pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 3 (§ 46.2-300 et seq.) of Title 46.2.

2006, cc. 926, 940; 2015, c. 740; 2020, cc. 908, 909, 1227, 1246.

§ 24.2-410.2. Security of the Virginia voter registration system.

A. The State Board shall promulgate regulations and standards necessary to ensure the security and integrity of the Virginia voter registration system and the supporting technologies utilized by the counties and cities to maintain and record registrant information. The State Board shall, in consultation with representatives of local government information technology professionals and general registrars, update the security standards at least annually. Such review shall be completed by November 30 each year.

B. The electoral board of each county and city that utilizes supporting technologies to maintain and record registrant information shall develop and annually update written plans and procedures to ensure the security and integrity of those supporting technologies. All plans and procedures shall be in compliance with the security standards established by the State Board pursuant to subsection A. Each electoral board shall report annually by March 1 to the Department of Elections on its security plans and procedures. The general registrar and the Department of Elections shall provide assistance to the electoral board, upon request by the electoral board.

C. In accordance with the process prescribed by the State Board, the Department of Elections may limit access to the Virginia voter registration system by any county or city that has failed to comply with the provisions of subsection B or the security standards established by the State Board pursuant to subsection A. Such access shall be limited as necessary in order to address and resolve any security risks or to enforce compliance with the provisions of subsection B or the security standards established by the State Board. Prior to restricting access to Virginia voter registration system by any county or city, the Department of Elections shall provide notice to the county or city of the failure to comply with the provisions of subsection A or B and the county or city shall have seven days to correct any deficiencies. The Department of Elections may provide technical assistance to any county or city upon request by the county or city.

D. Records of the State Board or of a local electoral board, to the extent such records describe protocols for maintaining the security of the Virginia voter registration system and the supporting technologies utilized to maintain and record registrant information, the release of which would compromise the security of the Virginia voter registration system, shall be confidential and excluded from inspection and copying under the Virginia Freedom of Information Act (§ 2.2-3700 et seq.).

E. The State Board or a local electoral board may hold a closed meeting pursuant to the provisions of the Virginia Freedom of Information Act (§ 2.2-3700 et seq.) for the purpose of discussing protocols for maintaining the security of the Virginia voter registration system and the supporting technologies utilized to maintain and record registrant information, where discussion of such matters in open meeting would compromise the security of the Virginia voter registration system. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to authorize a closed meeting to discuss any breach of security of the Virginia voter registration system.

F. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the release of information concerning any breach of security of the Virginia voter registration system.

2019, c. 426.